ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 7, Issue 6

Pages 1491–1763

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
    15. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica (ChemSusChem 6/2014) (page 1491)

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490021

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      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page 1528 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

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      Inside Cover Picture: Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow (ChemSusChem 6/2014) (page 1492)

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490022

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      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas-liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Communication by Noël et al. on page 1612 (DOI: 10.1002./cssc.201301282).

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      Back Cover: Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ChemSusChem 6/2014) (page 1764)

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490026

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      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page 1755 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

  2. Editorial

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    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
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    12. Review
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      A New Era of Catalysis: Efficiency, Value, and Sustainability (pages 1493–1494)

      Prof. Dr. Soofin Cheng and Prof. Dr. Shawn D. Lin

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400163

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      Value proposition: Global warming and climate change urge the chemical industry to develop new processes, in which sustainability is a necessity and requirement. Catalysis is recognized to be one of the key technologies in enabling sustainability. This special issue, assembled by guest editors Soofing Chen and Shawn D. Lin, highlights some of the best work presented at “The 6th Asia–Pacific Congress on Catalysis (APCAT-6)”, with as major theme “New Era of Catalysis: Efficiency, Value, and Sustainability”.

  3. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
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    12. Review
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    14. Communications
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      Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica (page 1495)

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098

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      “There is a strong bond between the mesoporous structure of silica-based materials and the hollow structure of bamboo stems…….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the Cover image can be found on page 1528 (10.1002/cssc.201400111). View the Front Cover on page 1528 (10.1002/cssc.201400097).

  4. Graphical Abstract

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    3. Editorial
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    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
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    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 6/2014 (pages 1497–1506)

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490023

  5. Masthead

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
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    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 6/2014 (page 1507)

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490024

  6. News

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    5. Graphical Abstract
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    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
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  7. Review

    1. Top of page
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    7. News
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    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
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    12. Review
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    14. Communications
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    1. Sonication-Induced Pathways in the Synthesis of Light-Active Catalysts for Photocatalytic Oxidation of Organic Contaminants (pages 1512–1527)

      Dr. Juan Carlos Colmenares

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402190

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      The sounds of catalysis: Unconventional and soft techniques offer enormous possibilities for the synthesis of a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, among them photocatalysts. Ultrasound creates cavities in liquids that give rise to unusual reaction conditions. These conditions allow for reactions that would otherwise have to occur at generally harsher conditions. A review of methodologies is provided.

  8. Minireview

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
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    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica (pages 1528–1536)

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111

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      Photocatalysis in mesoporous silica hosts: Photocatalysts assembled in transparent mesoporous silica exhibit remarkable performances with regard to environmental remediation and catalytic reactions under light irradiation. This Minireview introduces some typical studies on the engineering of surface chemistry, fabrication of binary oxides and nanocatalysts, plasmonic metal structures, and metal complexes in mesoporous silica-based hosts.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    7. News
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    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
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    12. Review
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    14. Communications
    15. Full Papers
    1. Hydrogenation of Biofuels with Formic Acid over a Palladium-Based Ternary Catalyst with Two Types of Active Sites (pages 1537–1541)

      Dr. Liang Wang, Dr. Bingsen Zhang, Dr. Xiangju Meng, Prof. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Feng-Shou Xiao

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400039

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      Triple play: A ternary Pd/TiO2@N[BOND]C catalyst is developed by supporting palladium nanoparticles onto a composite support of titania (TiO2) and nitrogen-modified porous carbon. The catalyst is able to fully hydrogenate vanillin, using formic acid, available from biomass, as hydrogen source. Its unique catalytic properties for hydrogenation are due to a synergistic effect between two different types of palladium sites in the catalyst: one for formic acid dehydrogenation and on for vanillin hydrogenation.

    2. Host–Guest Nanocomposites of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Ionic Liquids with Controllable Composition (pages 1542–1546)

      Yuxiao Ding and Prof. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301226

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      Being a good host: A series of host–guest nanocomposites containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ionic liquids (ILs) is synthesized, exploiting the volatility of ILs under vacuum conditions. Such nanocomposites can find use in both carbon catalysis and IL catalysis. The nanocatalysts can be easily recycled from reaction systems, offering sustainable methods for practical applications.

    3. Ionic Liquid Promoted Synthesis of Conjugated Carbon Nitride Photocatalysts from Urea (pages 1547–1550)

      Zhenzhen Lin and Prof. Xinchen Wang

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400016

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      BuILd your own semi: Simultaneous nanoarchitectual engineering and doping of a robust carbon nitride semiconductor has been demonstrated by a direct co-condensation of urea and an ionic liquid (e.g., [Bmim][BF4]), yielding boron- and fluorine-containing two-dimensional carbon nitride nanosheets with enhanced optical harvesting and charge separation capabilities for hydrogen evolution catalysis with visible light.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial
    4. Cover Profile
    5. Graphical Abstract
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Minireview
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    12. Review
    13. Minireview
    14. Communications
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    1. Large-Scale Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxides with Uniformly Coated Polyaniline for Supercapacitor Applications (pages 1551–1556)

      Rahul R. Salunkhe, Shao-Hui Hsu, Kevin C. W. Wu and Yusuke Yamauchi

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400147

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      Not just a flash in the PANI: An effective route for the preparation of layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with uniformly coated polyaniline (PANI) layers is reported. The nanocomposites are synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of layered rGO. Through synergistic effects, the rGO–PANI nanocomposites exhibit excellent capacitive performance with a high specific capacitance and high cycle reversibility.

    2. Transformation of Cellulose and its Derived Carbohydrates into Formic and Lactic Acids Catalyzed by Vanadyl Cations (pages 1557–1567)

      Zhenchen Tang, Weiping Deng, Yanliang Wang, Enze Zhu, Xiaoyue Wan, Qinghong Zhang and Prof. Dr. Ye Wang

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400150

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      Two birds with one stone: A shift of the major product from formic acid to lactic acid is observed on switching the reaction atmosphere from O2 to N2 during cellulose or glucose conversions catalyzed by vanadyl cations. Glucose is first isomerized into fructose, which undergoes retro-aldol fragmentation to form two trioses, which produce lactic and formic acid.

    3. Sustainable Production of Acrylic Acid: Alkali-Ion Exchanged Beta Zeolite for Gas-Phase Dehydration of Lactic Acid (pages 1568–1578)

      Bo Yan, Li-Zhi Tao, Yu Liang and Prof. Dr. Bo-Qing Xu

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400134

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      Ions in the flow: This work provides the first investigation on performance of alkali-ion-exchanged Beta zeolite as catalyst for a sustainable acrylic acid (AA) production from the gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) under various conditions. The nature and exchange degree of the alkali ion are shown to be critical to the acid–base properties and catalytic performance of the zeolites. The data also form a basis for the discussion of acid–base catalysis for the selective AA formation from LA.

  11. Review

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    1. Recycling of Polymers: A Review (pages 1579–1593)

      Dr. Igor A. Ignatyev, Prof. Dr. Wim Thielemans and Bob Vander Beke

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300898

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      Treasures can be found in waste: Various artificial polymeric materials, that is, plastics and textiles, are produced worldwide on a large scale and have many advantages over traditional materials. However, their recycling still remains an essential obstacle. Herein, the state of art of discarded polymer reuse and other methods of processing are presented. On top of that, potentially capable promising technologies are discussed throughout this Review.

  12. Minireview

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    1. In Situ Studies of Solvothermal Synthesis of Energy Materials (pages 1594–1611)

      Dr. Kirsten M. Ø. Jensen, Dr. Christoffer Tyrsted, Dr. Martin Bremholm and Prof. Dr. Bo B. Iversen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301042

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      In the thick of it: In situ X-ray and neutron studies of solvothermal and hydrothermal reactions can yield new information on the synthesis of energy material and map the structure–synthesis relationship. Various approaches to in situ powder diffraction and total scattering are reviewed. This review discusses experimental methods as well as strategies for data analysis and highlights the chemical insights that can be obtained from in situ experiments.

  13. Communications

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    1. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow (pages 1612–1617)

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282

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      Photo workflow: A simple and straightforward photocatalytic method for perfluoroalkylation in continuous flow is developed. A photo-microreactor, constructed from commercially available components, enables accelerated photocatalysis employing [Ru(bpy)3Cl2] as photocatalyst under irradiation by blue LED light. A series of electron-rich hetero-aromatics is successfully trifluoromethylated within 8–16 min. Also, a selection of hetero-aromatics is perfluoroalkylated within 10–20 min.

    2. Hollow Melon-Seed-Shaped Lithium Iron Phosphate Micro- and Sub-Micrometer Plates for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1618–1622)

      Dr. Xian-Feng Yang, Dr. Jin-Hua Yang, Dr. Yu Lin Zhong, Vincent Gariepy, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Dr. Karim Zaghib and Prof. Jackie Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400152

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      Hollow for better performance: Hollow melon-seed-shaped olivine-type lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) micro- and sub-micrometer plates are synthesized for the first time. A possible growth mechanism including nucleation, anisotropic growth, selective etching, and reverse recrystallization is proposed. This study illustrates a new approach for the growth of inorganic hollow materials for energy-related applications such as lithium-ion batteries.

    3. Lignol Cleavage by Pd/C Under Mild Conditions and Without Hydrogen: A Role for Benzylic C[BOND]H Activation? (pages 1623–1626)

      Dr. Xiaoyuan Zhou, Dr. Joyee Mitra and Prof. Thomas B. Rauchfuss

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301253

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      Cleavage within: The selective cleavage of β-O-4 bond linkage in lignin has received great attention. We developed a method using the commercially available heterogeneous catalyst, Pd/C, to cleave the C[BOND]O bond in β-O-4 linkage model compound without hydrogen. A mechanistic study shows that the present catalytic system undergoes a process different from previous reports, in which the β-benzylic-H atom in the substrates plays a critical role.

  14. Full Papers

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    7. News
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      Gasoline from Biomass through Refinery-Friendly Carbohydrate-Based Bio-Oil Produced by Ketalization (pages 1627–1636)

      Dr. Nuno Batalha, Alessandra V. da Silva, Matheus O. de Souza, Bruna M. C. da Costa, Elisa S. Gomes, Thiago C. Silva, Dr. Thalita G. Barros, Dr. Maria L. A. Gonçalves, Prof. Elina B. Caramão, Luciana R. M. dos Santos, Marlon B. B. Almeida, Prof. Rodrigo O. M. A. de Souza, Dr. Yiu L. Lam, Prof. Nakédia M. F. Carvalho, Prof. Leandro S. M. Miranda and Prof. Marcelo M. Pereira

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301242

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      Refinery refinement: The conversion of biomass into fuel by using a regular refinery installation can largely mitigate CO2 emissions. This goal is achieved by a two-step process: biomass is transformed into a carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by hydrolysis–ketalization reactions, then a gasoline with a high octane number is produced by catalytic upgrading.

    2. Isolated Boron and Nitrogen Sites on Porous Graphitic Carbon Synthesized from Nitrogen-Containing Chitosan for Supercapacitors (pages 1637–1646)

      Dr. Li Sun, Dr. Yu Fu, Dr. Chungui Tian, Dr. Ying Yang, Dr. Lei Wang, Jie Yin, Jing Ma, Dr. Ruihong Wang and Prof. Honggang Fu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400048

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      Bugs Ncorporated: Porous graphitic carbon having isolated boron and nitrogen centers is fabricated by a robust combination of a hydrothermal coordination and a ZnCl2-activation process from nitrogen-containing chitosan. The resultant materials exhibit superior capacitive properties and long-term stability, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of large surface area, good conductivity, and separated/isolated boron and nitrogen sites.

    3. Enhanced Conversion of Carbohydrates to the Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Designer Ionic Liquids (pages 1647–1654)

      Sviatlana Siankevich, Dr. Zhaofu Fei, Dr. Rosario Scopelliti, Prof. Gabor Laurenczy, Prof. Sergey Katsyuba, Prof. Ning Yan and Prof. Paul J. Dyson

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301368

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      Solvents by design: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a key platform chemical that may be obtained from various cellulosic (biomass) derivatives. Ionic liquids (ILs) facilitate the catalytic conversion of glucose into HMF. We demonstrate that the careful design of the IL cation leads to new ionic solvents that enhance the transformation of glucose and more complex carbohydrates into HMF.

    4. A Natural Carbonized Leaf as Polysulfide Diffusion Inhibitor for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cells (pages 1655–1661)

      Sheng-Heng Chung and Prof. Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301287

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      Force of nature: A natural carbonized leaf (CL) covering a sulfur cathode utilizes a polysulfide locking-film on one side to suppress polysulfide diffusion and an electrolyte reservoir on the other side to absorb the electrolyte containing dissolved polysulfides. The CL inhibitor turns a critical organ of higher plants into a key component of highly reversible lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery cells.

    5. Production of Clean Pyrolytic Sugars for Fermentation (pages 1662–1668)

      Dr. Marjorie R. Rover, Patrick A. Johnston, Tao Jin, Ryan G. Smith, Prof. Robert C. Brown and Prof. Laura Jarboe

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301259

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      Sugars recovery: The recovery of two value-added products from the fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, a concentrated sugar-rich solution, and phenolic oligomer-rich raffinate, is studied. The results suggest that the sugars recovered are promising alternatives for fermentation to ethanol, whereas the phenolic oligomers show potential for the production of aromatic chemicals, resins, binders, coatings, adhesives, carbon fibers, and asphalt.

    6. Chemically Stable Perovskites as Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: La-Doped Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (pages 1669–1675)

      Junyoung Kim, Sihyuk Choi, Areum Jun, Prof. Hu Young Jeong, Prof. Jeeyoung Shin and Prof. Guntae Kim

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301401

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      A-site for sore eyes: Although Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (BSCF) has won tremendous attention as a cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells, wide application of BSCF is impeded by phase instabilities under operating conditions. A chemically stable SOFC cathode material is reported based on La-doping into the A-site of BSCF and provides excellent structural stability and high oxygen reduction activity at intermediate temperature operation.

    7. Fe3O4/Carbon Hybrid Nanoparticle Electrodes for High-Capacity Electrochemical Capacitors (pages 1676–1683)

      Jun Seop Lee, Dong Hoon Shin, Jaemoon Jun, Choonghyeon Lee and Prof. Dr. Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301188

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      Of nozzles and electrons: Hybrid Fe3O4/carbon nanoparticles are prepared by using a three-step synthesis: dual-nozzle electrospraying, vapor deposition polymerization, and carbonization. The hybrid nanoparticles consist of porous Fe3O4 nanoneedles coated with a thin carbon layer and carbon particles and are used for preparing electrochemical capacitor electrodes with, owing to synergistic effects of carbon and Fe3O4, high specific capacitance and good cycle stability.

    8. Solventless Oxidative Coupling of Amines to Imines by Using Transition-Metal-Free Metal–Organic Frameworks (pages 1684–1688)

      Xuan Qiu, Prof. Christophe Len, Prof. Rafael Luque and Prof. Yingwei Li

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301340

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      Neat couple! A metal–organic framework with open 2,2'-bipyridine sites offers a new, simple, and green protocol for the selective synthesis of imines from oxidative coupling of various amines under mild solvent-free conditions in the absence of transition metals. In addition, this catalyst is also capable of catalyzing the cross-coupling of two different amines to synthesize asymmetrical imines with unprecedented selectivity.

    9. Occurrence and Implications of Voltage Reversal in Stacked Microbial Fuel Cells (pages 1689–1695)

      Dr. Junyeong An and Prof. Dr. Hyung-Sool Lee

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300949

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      Role reversal: Sluggish kinetics on the anode can cause voltage reversal in stacked microbial fuel vells (MFCs). Non-spontaneous anode overpotential in a unit MFC that has sluggish anode kinetics compared to the other unit MFCs switches the sluggish MFC to a microbial electrochemical cell mode powered by the other rapid units in the MFCs. The anode potential significantly increases over cathode potential as current increases, resulting in voltage reversal.

    10. CO2 Captured in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Uptake and Host–Guest Interactions (pages 1696–1702)

      Dr. Athanassios G. Kontos, Dr. Vlassis Likodimos, Dr. Charitomeni M. Veziri, Dr. Evangelos Kouvelos, Nikolaos Moustakas, Dr. Georgios N. Karanikolos, Dr. George Em. Romanos and Dr. Polycarpos Falaras

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301323

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      Are you Raman enough? In situ Raman investigation of the interactions of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with CO2 in practical pressure and temperature regimes (0–10 bar and 0–64 °C) correlates well with corresponding macroscopic CO2 sorption data and shows clear spectroscopic evidence of CO2 uptake (see image). Raman is found to be an easy and sensitive tool for quantifying CO2 uptake, identifying weak host–guest interactions, and elucidating CO2 sorption mechanism in ZIFs.

    11. Three-Phase Catalytic System of H2O, Ionic Liquid, and VOPO4–SiO2 Solid Acid for Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (pages 1703–1709)

      Chengcheng Tian, Xiang Zhu, Dr. Song-Hai Chai, Dr. Zili Wu, Andrew Binder, Dr. Suree Brown, Dr. Lin Li, Dr. Huimin Luo, Dr. Yanglong Guo and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400119

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      Set phases to stun! A three-phase catalytic system, consisting of an aqueous phase, a hydrophobic ionic-liquid phase, and a solid-acid catalyst phase of nanostructured vanadium phosphate and mesostructured cellular foam is developed for efficient conversion of biomass-derived fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. This unique three-phase catalytic system opens up an alternative avenue for making solid-acid catalyst systems with controlled microenvironment.

    12. Ionic-Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Nanostructured and Carbon-Coated Li3V2(PO4)3 for High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices (pages 1710–1718)

      Xiaofei Zhang, Dr. Nils Böckenfeld, Dr. Frank Berkemeier and Dr. Andrea Balducci

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301331

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      Storage solutions: Carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 displaying nanostructured morphology is easily prepared by using ionic-liquid-assisted sol–gel synthesis. This material displays improved lithium-ion diffusion and electronic conductivity and thus enhanced charge-transfer properties. Li3V2(PO4)3 prepared by this sol–gel route is a very promising cathode material for high-power electrochemical storage devices.

    13. You have free access to this content
      Nickel-Based Anode with Water Storage Capability to Mitigate Carbon Deposition for Direct Ethanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 1719–1728)

      Dr. Wei Wang, Dr. Chao Su, Prof. Ran Ran, Bote Zhao, Prof. Zongping Shao, Prof. Moses O. Tade and Prof. Shaomin Liu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301341

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      No shortage of water storage: To overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition, a new class of anode catalysts exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 paves the way for the application of hydrocarbons as an efficient fuel. The water storage capability of these robust proton-conducting ceramics captures the water produced from the fuel oxidation and releases it to gasify the carbon formed.

    14. Generation of Basic Centers in High-Silica Zeolites and their Application in Gas-Phase Upgrading of Bio-Oil (pages 1729–1738)

      Tobias C. Keller, Dr. Elodie G. Rodrigues and Prof. Dr. Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301382

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      Creating new basic sites: Through activation treatments in alkaline media, basic sites with high activity, stability, and selectivity are generated in high-silica FAU, BEA, and MFI zeolites, which enable the efficient deoxygenation of pyrolysis oil by condensation reactions. Intermediate bio-oil upgrading is key for the sustainable and profitable production of advanced biofuels.

    15. Palladium and Gold Nanotubes as Oxygen Reduction Reaction and Alcohol Oxidation Reaction Catalysts in Base (pages 1739–1744)

      Shaun M. Alia, Kathlynne Duong, Toby Liu, Kurt Jensen and Prof. Yushan Yan

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400129

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      Pd ORR Au: Palladium nanotubes (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) are studied as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base. PdNTs and AuNTs produce ORR area activities that are 2.9 and 2.3 times greater than those produced by Pd/C and Au/C, respectively. The PdNTs further show improved methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol oxidation activity in comparison to nanoparticle catalysts.

    16. Porous Cube-Aggregated Co3O4 Microsphere-Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Toluene (pages 1745–1754)

      Huanggen Yang, Prof. Hongxing Dai, Dr. Jiguang Deng, Shaohua Xie, Wen Han, Wei Tan, Yang Jiang and Chak Tong Au

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400050

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      In the world of microspheres and cubes: Porous Co3O4 monodisperse microspheres and xAu/Co3O4 microsphere (x=1.6–7.4 wt %) are prepared using glycerol-assisted solvothermal and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. The higher oxygen adspecies concentration, better low-temperature reducibility, and strong interaction between gold and Co3O4 are responsible for the excellent catalytic performance of 7.4Au/Co3O4 microspheres.

    17. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (pages 1755–1763)

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049

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      Raise your cup! The template-free pyrolysis of natural seaweed results in “seaweed carbon” (SCup) with a high surface area and doped nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. The reaction proceeds through a four-electron pathway in alkaline media, and the activity is comparable to that of the Pt/C catalyst, but SCup shows enhanced durability and methanol tolerance.

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