ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 7

July 2014

Volume 7, Issue 7

Pages 1765–2047

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Cover Picture: Multifunctional Organized Mesoporous Tin Oxide Films Templated by Graft Copolymers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (ChemSusChem 7/2014) (page 1765)

      Dr. Jung Tae Park, Sung Hoon Ahn, Dr. Dong Kyu Roh, Chang Soo Lee and Prof. Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400101

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      The Front Cover image illustrates the importance of organized mesoporous SnO2 film with high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity in dye-sensitized solar-cells (DSSC) applications. Although SnO2 films have been studied to increase electron transport, a multifunctional SnO2 film with high porosity and an organized mesoporous structure has not yet been reported. The group of Prof. Jong Hak Kim prepared multi-functional organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) film through a facile sol–gel process using a cheap graft copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The use of om-SnO2 film resulted in enhanced light harvesting, increased electron transport, reduced charge recombination, and decreased interfacial/internal resistance. More details can be found in the Full Paper on page 2037 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301215), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400102).

    2. Inside Cover Picture: Chitosan-Microreactor: A Versatile Approach for Heterogeneous Organic Synthesis in Microfluidics (ChemSusChem 7/2014) (page 1766)

      Dr. K. C. Basavaraju, Dr. Siddharth Sharma, Dr. Ajay K. Singh, Dr. Do Jin Im and Prof. Dr. Dong-Pyo Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400103

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      The Inside Cover picture shows a new technique developed by Prof. D.-P. Kim and co-workers to immobilize diverse metal/metal complex catalysts such as copper, gold, palladium, or ruthenium on chitosan as a common substrate in a solvent-resistant poly(dimethylsiloxane) microreactor for performing click chemistry, ester-assisted hydrations, and different coupling reactions. The channel surface grafted by chitosan biopolymer acted as a polymeric ligand owing to the presence of [BOND]OH and [BOND]NH2 groups. Up to 50 μg of the immobilized catalyst achieved turnover numbers on the order of 105 for organic transformations without the use of extra ligands and with no leaching; this is presumably attributable to highly dispersed chitosan nanobrushs present in the medium as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the microreactor. More details can be found in the Full Paper on page 1864 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400012).

    3. Back Cover: Peapod-Like Composite with Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Carbon Fibers as Enhanced Anode for Li-Ion Batteries (ChemSusChem 7/2014) (page 2048)

      Dr. Huijuan Zhang, Yangyang Feng, Yan Zhang, Ling Fang, Wenxiang Li, Prof. Qing Liu, Prof. Kai Wu and Prof. Yu Wang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400104

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      The Back Cover picture shows the unique evolution of the layered precursor of hydrated ammonia nickel phosphate nanorod to the peapod-like nanocomposite with nickel phosphide nanoparticles tightly encapsulated in carbon nanofibers. The transformation relies on glucose molecules as the carbon source and reductive reagent during the hydrothermal reaction and the high-temperature calcinations in inert atmosphere, respectively. The obtained peapod-like nanocomposite has prominent benefits for secondary Li storage, which can be attributed to the unique peapod nanostructure. The picture also shows the badge of Chongqing University in the center, which was founded in 1929 which has been substantially supported by the Chinese central government under the “985” and “211” educational schemes. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Wang et al. on page 2000 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301394).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Multifunctional Organized Mesoporous Tin Oxide Films Templated by Graft Copolymers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (page 1767)

      Dr. Jung Tae Park, Sung Hoon Ahn, Dr. Dong Kyu Roh, Chang Soo Lee and Prof. Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400102

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      “the future opportunity raised by this work is that multi-functional organized mesoporous materials could be applied for water splitting, lithium batteries…….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the Cover image can be found on page 2037 (10.1002/cssc.201400102). View the Front Cover on page 1765 (10.1002/cssc.201400101).

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 7/2014 (pages 1768–1777)

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490027

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 7/2014 (page 1779)

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490028

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Ionic Liquids and Deep Eutectic Mixtures: Sustainable Solvents for Extraction Processes (pages 1784–1800)

      Francisco Pena-Pereira and Jacek Namieśnik

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301192

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      Exacting extractions: Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have attracted considerable attention on account of their unique properties. This review provides relevant applications of these sustainable solvents in extraction processes that have significant impact in science and technology, including analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking.

    2. Heterogeneous Catalysis and the Challenges of Powering the Planet, Securing Chemicals for Civilised Life, and Clean Efficient Utilization of Renewable Feedstocks (pages 1801–1832)

      Sir John Meurig Thomas

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301202

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      A tall order: This Review focuses partly on current challenges in photocatalysis and the comparative promise of solar-thermal converters. Existing industrial catalysts that process non-renewable feedstocks and the need for their replacement are also discussed, including those for ammoxidation, the benign synthesis of nylon, PET, and catalytic cracking. The combined use of metabolic engineering and designed single-site nanoporous catalysts for processing renewable feedstocks is outlined.

  7. Minireviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Catalytic Formation of Monosaccharides: From the Formose Reaction towards Selective Synthesis (pages 1833–1846)

      Dr. Irina V. Delidovich, Dr. Alexandr N. Simonov, Dr. Oxana P. Taran and Prof. Dr. Valentin N. Parmon

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400040

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      First and formose: The formose reaction (FR) is a simple method for synthesis of complex sugar-like molecules from the simplest organic substrate—formaldehyde. This Minireview outlines the mechanisms of numerous parallel and consequential chemical transformations that take place during the FR. The different approaches to the control of selectivity of carbohydrate synthesis from formaldehyde and lower monosaccharides are also considered.

    2. Metabolic Engineering: The Ultimate Paradigm for Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing (pages 1847–1853)

      Dr. Vikramaditya G. Yadav and Prof. Gregory Stephanopoulos

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301219

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      The ′pathway′ to a manufacturing renaissance: A new vision for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, is described. This new manufacturing paradigm saliently allows rapid optimization of production variables as well as facile scale-up from gram to ton scales to meet material requirements for clinical trials. These benefits imply that manufacturing can also double up as valuable tool for drug discovery.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. High-Performance Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cell using a Nitrogen-Postdoped Anode (pages 1854–1857)

      Dr. Prabhuram Joghee, Dr. Svitlana Pylypenko, Dr. Kevin Wood, Dr. Guido Bender and Dr. Ryan O'Hayre

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400158

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      High performance: We demonstrate a high performance alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) that obtains high maximum power densities in oxygen as well as in air using a commercial PtRu/C catalyst. Upon doping the commercial catalyst with nitrogen, we are able to further improve the performance to the highest power densities demonstrated so far for an ADMFC.

    2. Unveiling TiNb2O7 as an Insertion Anode for Lithium Ion Capacitors with High Energy and Power Density (pages 1858–1863)

      Dr. Vanchiappan Aravindan, Dr. Jayaraman Sundaramurthy, Akshay Jain, Dr. Palaniswamy Suresh Kumar, Dr. Wong Chui Ling, Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna, Prof. Madapusi P. Srinivasan and Prof. Srinivasan Madhavi

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400157

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      Spinning to capacity: High-energy-density lithium-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors are fabricated by using an insertion-type TiNb2O7 anode, prepared by a scalable electrospinning technique, with an activated carbon (AC) counter electrode.

    3. Chitosan-Microreactor: A Versatile Approach for Heterogeneous Organic Synthesis in Microfluidics (pages 1864–1869)

      Dr. K. C. Basavaraju, Dr. Siddharth Sharma, Dr. Ajay K. Singh, Dr. Do Jin Im and Prof. Dr. Dong-Pyo Kim

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400012

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      Swallowed chitosan fixes metals: A general-purpose platform has been devised for the synthesis of a library of compounds in the form of a microreactor using a facile method: chitosan is immobilized on a microreactor channel as nanobrush. Using this method, a variety of metal compounds/metals can be immobilized on chitosan; used as a versatile substrate, robust and excellent catalytic activity can be achieved.

    4. Aluminum Manganese Oxides with Mixed Crystal Structure: High-Energy-Density Cathodes for Rechargeable Sodium Batteries (pages 1870–1875)

      Dr. Dong-Wook Han, Jun-Hwan Ku, Ryoung-Hee Kim, Dr. Dong-Jin Yun, Seok-Soo Lee and Seok-Gwang Doo

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301254

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      Going Al in: The incorporation of aluminum into NaxMnO2 results in aluminum manganese oxides (NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2) showing higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine NaxMnO2. The enhanced performance is due to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na0.44MnO2 phase in NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2, and to increase in the surface stability of the NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2 particles caused by the formation of Al[BOND]O bonds on their surfaces.

    5. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Maghemite/Silica Nanocomposites: Advanced Materials for Aqueous Room-Temperature Catalysis (pages 1876–1880)

      Manuel Ojeda, Dr. Antonio Pineda, Prof. Antonio A. Romero, Prof. Vidal Barrón and Prof. Rafael Luque

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400055

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      When in room: A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol is developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials are applied in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, where they show unprecedented activities, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Construction of Hybrid Supercapacitor–Batteries with dual-scale shelled architecture (pages 1881–1887)

      Dr. Zhongyu Qian, Tao Peng, Prof. Jun Wang and Prof. Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400148

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      A bold step into space: Inspired by the slurry-casting method, a dual-scale shelled architecture is constructed by using a simple and flexible solution-based strategy. The specific thermodynamic hysteresis results in consecutive ‘breaking’ and ‘fusing’ of the structure, which in turn confers a hybrid supercapacitor–battery character upon the material. This result also highlights a new interfacial design that shifts focus from surface towards free volume utilization.

    2. Recycling Nanoparticle Catalysts without Separation Based on a Pickering Emulsion/Organic Biphasic System (pages 1888–1900)

      Huifang Liu, Prof. Zhiming Zhang, Prof. Hengquan Yang, Prof. Fangqin Cheng and Prof. Zhiping Du

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400142

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      Going through a phase: A new methodology is explored for in situ recycling of nanoparticle catalysts based on transforming a conventional organic/aqueous biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system. The simple protocol results in a high catalysis efficiency and excellent catalyst recyclability for more sustainable nanocatalysis.

    3. Tuning Thin-Film Electrolyte for Lithium Battery by Grafting Cyclic Carbonate and Combed Poly(ethylene oxide) on Polysiloxane (pages 1901–1908)

      Dr. Jie Li, Yue Lin, Hehua Yao, Dr. Changfu Yuan and Prof. Jin Liu

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400113

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      Polymer power: A bifunctional polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries is reported. The cyclic carbonate propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are simultaneously grafted on the polysiloxane, and the ionic conductivity can be significantly improved by adjusting the PC/PEO ratio. In addition, the electrolyte can be efficiently used in the LiFePO4/Li battery that lights a light-emitting diode lamp.

    4. Cobalt Dopant with Deep Redox Potential for Organometal Halide Hybrid Solar Cells (pages 1909–1914)

      Teck Ming Koh, Sabba Dharani, Dr. Hairong Li, Rajiv Ramanujam Prabhakar, Prof. Nripan Mathews, Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale and Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400081

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      Superiority complex: A new cobalt complex with deep redox potential is synthesized as p-dopant for hole-transporting materials in photovoltaic devices. High efficiency perovskite-based solar cells are fabricated using the complex as dopant for molecular hole-conductor 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene. The dopant shows effective spiro-to-spiro+ conversion and excellent dopant properties in photovoltaic applications.

    5. Biosourced Polymetallic Catalysts: An Efficient Means To Synthesize Underexploited Platform Molecules from Carbohydrates (pages 1915–1923)

      Vincent Escande , Dr. Tomasz K. Olszewski, Eddy Petit and Prof. Dr. Claude Grison 

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400078

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      Common-or-garden variety catalyst: Polymetallic hyperaccumulating plants are used in the preparation of Lewis acid plant-based catalysts. The catalysts efficiently mediate the Garcia Gonzalez reaction to furnish platform molecules from carbohydrates. Efficiency, generality of application, ease of control of the reaction selectivity, use of solid-state reactions, and the capacity to recover and reuse polymetallic catalysts are the key advantages of the presented approach.

    6. Photoreduction of Iron(III) to Iron(0) Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Hydrogen Evolution in Aqueous Solution (pages 1924–1933)

      Dr. Chuan-Jun Wang, Dr. Shuang Cao, Dr. Biao Qin, Chen Zhang, Dr. Ting-Ting Li and Prof. Wen-Fu Fu

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400065

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      Shedding light on an iron catalyst: A bifunctional noble-metal-free system for the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe(0) nanoparticles in water and simultaneous highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is established. The sizes of the Fe nanoparticles generated in situ are tuned by changing the sacrificial donor from triethylamine to triethanolamine and by the introduction of H2N-MCM-41 or graphene into the photocatalytic system.

    7. Harvesting, Storing and Utilising Solar Energy using MoO3: Modulating Structural Distortion through pH Adjustment (pages 1934–1941)

      Shi Nee Lou, Dr. Yun Hau Ng, Dr. Charlene Ng, Dr. Jason Scott and Prof. Rose Amal

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400047

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      Photogenic: Subjected to positive bias and illumination, α-MoO3 demonstrates the capability to generate and store photoexcited charges in its layered structure through the intercalation of alkali cations. The electrolyte pH during anodization can be used to modulate the crystal structure of α-MoO3, which in turn governs charge storage and mobility properties.

    8. Effect of Lignin Chemistry on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Woody Biomass (pages 1942–1950)

      Dr. Zhiying Yu, Dr. Ki-Seob Gwak, Trevor Treasure, Dr. Hasan Jameel, Dr. Hou-min Chang and Dr. Sunkyu Park

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400042

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      Breaking it down: A new method called biomass reconstruction is introduced to study the effect of lignin chemistry on enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is inhibited by increasing degree of condensation and decreasing total hydroxyl content of lignin; this may be a reason for the high recalcitrant nature of softwood substrate.

    9. In Situ Thermally Cross-linked Polyacrylonitrile as Binder for High-Performance Silicon as Lithium Ion Battery Anode (pages 1951–1956)

      Dr. Lanyao Shen, Dr. Lian Shen, Prof. Zhaoxiang Wang and Prof. Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400030

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      Flying with PAN: Polyacrylonitrile is thermally cross-linked in situ, leading to the formation of a conjugated system. The material is used as a binder and greatly improves the electrochemical performance of silicon-based electrodes by endowing them with high capacity maintenance and high efficiency. The overall concept is significant for industrial fabrication of lithium-ion batteries.

    10. Enhanced Performance and Stability of Polymer BHJ Photovoltaic Devices from Dry Transfer of PEDOT:PSS (pages 1957–1963)

      Jung Kyu Kim, Dr. Insun Park, Wanjung Kim, Prof. Dong Hwan Wang, Dr. Dae-Geun Choi, Dr. Yeong Suk Choi and Prof. Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400022

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      Smoothing it over with a stamp: Bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with enhanced device performances and a long-term stability are fabricated using a simple dry transfer method. Due to the reverse poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-enriched region in the transferred poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT):PSS layer, its work function and morphology can be tuned. Furthermore, by avoiding direct contact between substrate and PEDOT:PSS solution, the stability is improved.

    11. A High-Performance Renewable Thermosetting Resin Derived from Eugenol (pages 1964–1969)

      Dr. Benjamin G. Harvey, Dr. Christopher M. Sahagun, Dr. Andrew J. Guenthner, Dr. Thomas J. Groshens, Dr. Lee R. Cambrea, Dr. Josiah T. Reams and Dr. Joseph M. Mabry

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400019

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      For the clove of it: Eugenol, an abundant natural phenol and the primary component of clove oil, is converted to a thermoset resin without the use of bisphenol A, which has estrogenic effects. This is achieved by using a high yield, two-step reaction, in which the intermediate bisphenol is generated through a solvent-free process with low catalyst loading. The structure–property relationships resulting from the presence of atypical substituents on the aromatic rings of the eugenol-derived resin are also discussed.

    12. Competing Reactions of CO2 with Cations and Anions in Azolide Ionic Liquids (pages 1970–1975)

      Thomas R. Gohndrone, Dr. Tae Bum Lee, Dr. M. Aruni DeSilva, Dr. Mauricio Quiroz-Guzman, Prof. William F. Schneider and Prof. Joan F. Brennecke

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400009

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      Two different paths: Phosphonium azolide ionic liquids of interest for CO2 capture applications react with CO2 both through the normal anion channel and, at elevated temperatures, through a previously unrecognized cation channel. The cation channel involves a phosphonium ylide intermediate that is formed due to cation/anion interactions. This channel is suppressed with less-acidic ammonium cations.

    13. Formic Acid Dehydrogenation with Bioinspired Iridium Complexes: A Kinetic Isotope Effect Study and Mechanistic Insight (pages 1976–1983)

      Dr. Wan-Hui Wang, Dr. Shaoan Xu, Dr. Yuichi Manaka, Dr. Yuki Suna, Dr. Hide Kambayashi, Dr. James T. Muckerman, Dr. Etsuko Fujita and Dr. Yuichiro Himeda

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301414

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      The key controls the mechanism: A deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) study clearly indicates a different mechanism for complexes with OH at different positions of the ligands. The rate-limiting step is β-hydrogen elimination from the iridium–formate intermediate for complexes with OH at ortho positions owing to a proton relay (i.e., pendent-base effect), which lowers the energy barrier of generation of H2.

    14. Catalytic Conversion of γ-Valerolactone to ε-Caprolactam: Towards Nylon from Renewable Feedstock (pages 1984–1990)

      Saeed Raoufmoghaddam, Marcus T. M. Rood, Florine K. W. Buijze, Prof. Dr. Eite Drent and Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Bouwman

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301397

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      Caprolactam made easy: The conversion of γ-valerolactone (GVL) in three atom-efficient steps to ε-caprolactam is reported. Bio-based GVL can be converted to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenamides through trans-esterification with methanol and subsequent aminolysis with ammonia. The resulting pentenamides are ultimately converted into ε-caprolactam via the rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamidomethylation reaction.

    15. Fractionation of Hemp Hurds by Organosolv Pretreatment and its Effect on Production of Lignin and Sugars (pages 1991–1999)

      Stefano Gandolfi, Dr. Gianluca Ottolina, Dr. Roberto Consonni, Dr. Sergio Riva and Dr. Ilabahen Patel

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301396

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      Stupefyingly hemp: Clean fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass is important for an advanced integrated biorefinery, which allows effective separation of constitutive polymer components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) in a single-step process. The proposed organosolv process is suitable for the high-yield production of high-quality lignin and sugars (xylose and glucose from hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively).

    16. Peapod-Like Composite with Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Carbon Fibers as Enhanced Anode for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 2000–2006)

      Dr. Huijuan Zhang, Yangyang Feng, Yan Zhang, Ling Fang, Wenxiang Li, Prof. Qing Liu, Prof. Kai Wu and Prof. Yu Wang

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301394

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      Pod people: A simple and controllable method for synthesizing a peapod-like composite with Ni12P5 nanoparticles encapsulated in a carbon fiber layer is described. The obtained composite performs excellently as a Li-ion batteries anode. The peapod-like composite has numerous potential applications, in fields such as optoelectronics, electronics, specific catalysis, gas sensing, and biotechnology.

    17. Carbon-Coated Ceramic Membrane Reactor for the Production of Hydrogen by Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Sorbitol (pages 2007–2015)

      M. F. Neira D'Angelo, V. Ordomsky, J. C. Schouten, J. van der Schaaf and Dr. T. A. Nijhuis

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301324

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      Tubular shells: Hydrogen is selectively produced by means of aqueous-phase reforming in a hydrophobic tubular membrane reactor. The hydrogen gas permeates to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The removal of hydrogen through the membrane prevents its consumption in undesired reactions, increasing the yield of hydrogen.

    18. The Effects of Preparation Conditions for a BaNbO2N Photocatalyst on Its Physical Properties (pages 2016–2021)

      Dr. Takashi Hisatomi, Chisato Katayama, Dr. Kentaro Teramura, Dr. Tsuyoshi Takata, Dr. Yosuke Moriya, Dr. Tsutomu Minegishi, Dr. Masao Katayama, Dr. Hiroshi Nishiyama, Dr. Taro Yamada and Prof. Dr. Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400121

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      All under control: Faster ammonia flow rates and higher barium/niobium ratios in precursors suppress the reduction of Nb5+ ions during nitridation. Precursors prepared by a soft-chemistry route are nitrided faster into BaNbO2N at lower temperatures than physical mixtures of BaCO3 and Nb2O5; this enables control of the physical properties of BaNbO2N.

    19. In situ Observation of Radicals and Molecular Products During Lignin Pyrolysis (pages 2022–2029)

      Christian Bährle, Victoria Custodis, Prof. Dr. Gunnar Jeschke, Prof. Dr. Jeroen A. van Bokhoven and Prof. Dr. Frédéric Vogel

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400079

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      Illuminating the pyrolysis black box: In situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to monitor the radical depolymerization reactions occurring during lignin pyrolysis. This technique combined with common analytical tools, such as GC–MS and thermogravimetric analysis, exposes differences in the pyrolysis chemistry of lignins from different botanical origin. This new knowledge can be used to optimize the production of green chemicals from lignin.

    20. Low-Temperature Depolymerization of Polysiloxanes with Iron Catalysis (pages 2030–2036)

      Dr. Stephan Enthaler and Dr. Robert Kretschmer

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301386

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      Breaking and making: The straightforward iron-catalyzed depolymerization of a range of polysiloxanes is studied. Depolymerization products are subsequently utilized as appropriate starting materials for new polymers. In the presence of simple iron salts extraordinary catalyst activities and selectivities are noted at low temperatures.

    21. Multifunctional Organized Mesoporous Tin Oxide Films Templated by Graft Copolymers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2037–2047)

      Dr. Jung Tae Park, Sung Hoon Ahn, Dr. Dong Kyu Roh, Chang Soo Lee and Prof. Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301215

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      Peeling back the layers: An organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) film is prepared using a graft copolymer as a template for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The improved efficiency is attributed to the antireflective property, cascadal energy band gap, good interconnectivity, and high electrical conductivity of the film.

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