ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 8

August 2014

Volume 7, Issue 8

Pages 2049–2364

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Cover Picture: Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin in Supercritical Ethanol (ChemSusChem 8/2014) (page 2049)

      Xiaoming Huang, Dr. Tamás I. Korányi, Dr. Michael D. Boot and Prof. Dr. Emiel J. M. Hensen

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402638

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      The Front Cover image shows a single-step process that effectively depolymerizes lignin in supercritical ethanol using an inexpensive CuMgAlOx catalyst. Ethanol not only acts as a hydrogen-donor solvent but also as a capping agent, which can stabilize the highly reactive phenolic intermediates either by O-alkylation of hydroxyl groups or by C-alkylation of the aromatic rings, thus essentially inhibiting repolymerization reactions. High monomer yield can be obtained without char formation. The monomeric products can be used as fuel additives or chemicals. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Hensen et al. on page 2276 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402094), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402665).

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      Inside Cover: Vertical Distribution of Overpotentials and Irreversible Charge Losses in Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes (ChemSusChem 8/2014) (page 2050)

      Dr. Stefan Klink, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Dr. Fabio La Mantia

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400164

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      The Inside Cover illustrates the electrochemical sieving effect in porous graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, which appears during the first charge. Limitations in mass transport result in a reduction of contaminants and additives preferentially at the negative electrode surface close to the separator. The electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite occurs in a layer-by-layer process due to the depletion of lithium from the solution and formation of concentration overpotential, which slow down the reaction in the bottom layers. The cross-current density distribution becomes broader during the intercalation and deintercalation processes. More details can be found in the Full Paper by La Mantia et al. on page 2159 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400056).

    3. Inside Back Cover: Synergistic Fusion of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes (ChemSusChem 8/2014) (page 2365)

      Dong Han Seo, Samuel Yick, Dr. Zhao Jun Han, Dr. Jing Hua Fang and Prof. Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402686

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the synergistic integration of highly porous micropatterns of vertically aligned graphenes and carbon nanotubes and their application for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This is achieved by fusing the carbon nanotubes in the basal plane of the vertical graphenes, which was synthesized from natural precursors by using an environmentally benign plasma process. The high electrochemical activity of the edge plane is retained, and the relatively inactive basal planes are filled with highly conducting carbon nanotubes. This combination of interconnected nanostructures substantially enhances the supercapacitor performance, thus making hybrid multidimensional nanoarchitectures promising energy storage devices for the future. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Han et al. on page 2317 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402045).

    4. Back Cover: New Hydrogen-Evolution Heteronanostructured Photocatalysts: Pt-Nb3O7(OH) and Cu-Nb3O7(OH) (ChemSusChem 8/2014) (page 2366)

      Dr. Mohamad Hmadeh, Dr. Veronika Hoepfner, Eduardo Larios, Dr. Kristine Liao, Jia Jia, Prof. Miguel Jose-Yacaman and Prof. Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402639

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      The Back Cover picture illustrates the performance of Nb3O7(OH), a new hydrogen evolution photocatalyst: Under solar illumination, photogenerated holes are scavenged by methanol while the reduction of protons to hydrogen is kinetically hindered. Thus, the electrons remain in the conduction band and/or trap states, turning the photocatalyst deep blue. The deposition of metal particles on the surface introduces a new reaction side, which now is able to overcome the kinetic barrier. Subsequently, hydrogen is formed and no photochromic process is observed. More details can be found in the Communication by Hmadeh et al. on page 2104 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402173).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin in Supercritical Ethanol (page 2051)

      Xiaoming Huang, Dr. Tamás I. Korányi, Dr. Michael D. Boot and Prof. Dr. Emiel J. M. Hensen

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402665

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      “Lignin is a hard nut to crack…….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page 2051 (10.1002/cssc.201402665). View the Front Cover on page 2049 (10.1002/cssc.201402638).

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 8/2014 (pages 2052–2063)

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490030

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 8/2014 (pages 2064–2065)

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490031

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
  6. Minireview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Progress in Base-Metal Water Oxidation Catalysis (pages 2070–2080)

      Dr. Alexander Rene Parent and Prof. Ken Sakai

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402322

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      Providing a platform: The development of water oxidation catalysts based on first-row transition metals has received increased interest in recent years as a method for storing solar fuels inexpensively. The homogeneous catalysts developed in the past two decades are reviewed, and commentary on the development of the field is provided.

  7. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. High-Performance Polymers from Nature: Catalytic Routes and Processes for Industry (pages 2081–2088)

      Dr. Guido Walther

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402379

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      I love it when a plant comes together: A complete understanding of the transformation of plant oil into α,ω-functionalized monomers is key to its development as an industrial process. Besides economical and ecological perspectives, there are other important factors to consider, such as a reduction in CO2 emission and waste by the complete molecular utilization of the feedstock. This Concept advocates the drop-in strategy, and is guided by the example of catalytically synthesized α,ω-functionalized polymerizable monomers.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Palladium/Carbon Dioxide Cooperative Catalysis for the Production of Diketone Derivatives from Carbohydrates (pages 2089–2093)

      Dr. Fei Liu, Maïté Audemar, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier, Dr. Jean-Marc Clacens, Dr. Floryan De Campo and Dr. François Jérôme

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402221

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      Allez les verts! Valuable diketone derivatives are produced from carbohydrates and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through a flexible cooperative catalysis process involving a palladium/carbon dioxide system. Key to the process is reversible in situ formation of carbonic acid, which is capable of assisting Pd/C during the hydrogenation reaction by promoting the dehydration of carbohydrates and the ring-opening of furanic intermediates.

    2. Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquid as a Solvent-Conserving Catalyst for Organic Reactions (pages 2094–2098)

      Amir Taheri, Xiaojuan Pan, Changhui Liu and Prof. Yanlong Gu

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402220

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      Brains not Brønsted: Sulfonyl-containing ammonium-based Brønsted acid ionic liquids (ILs) are prepared and used as liquid heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions under solvent-free conditions. The sulfonyl group endowed these ILs with unique macroscopic phase heterogeneity in the reaction system, ensuring outstanding catalytic activities of the ILs. These catalytic systems are applicable in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions.

    3. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction (pages 2099–2103)

      Yang Hu, Dr. Jens Oluf Jensen, Dr. Wei Zhang, Dr. Yunjie Huang, Dr. Lars N. Cleemann, Prof. Wei Xing, Prof. Niels J. Bjerrum and Dr. Qingfeng Li

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402183

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      Ironclad approach: A novel approach is reported for the direct fabrication of few-layer graphene functionalized with Fe3C nanoparticles. The synthesis, achieved by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis of volatile precursors without any substrate, is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the composite showed excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    4. New Hydrogen-Evolution Heteronanostructured Photocatalysts: Pt-Nb3O7(OH) and Cu-Nb3O7(OH) (pages 2104–2109)

      Dr. Mohamad Hmadeh, Dr. Veronika Hoepfner, Eduardo Larios, Dr. Kristine Liao, Jia Jia, Prof. Miguel Jose-Yacaman and Prof. Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402173

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      Nb3O7(OH), a new hydrogen-evolution photocatalyst: Under solar illumination photogenerated holes are scavenged by methanol, whereas the reduction of protons to hydrogen is kinetically hindered. Thus, the electrons remain in the conduction band and/or trap states. The deposition of metal particles on the surface introduces a new reaction side, which can overcome the kinetic barrier. Subsequently, hydrogen is formed and no photochromic process is observed.

    5. Efficient Fixation of CO2 by a Zinc-Coordinated Conjugated Microporous Polymer (pages 2110–2114)

      Yong Xie, Ting-Ting Wang, Rui-Xia Yang, Dr. Nian-Yu Huang, Prof. Dr. Kun Zou and Prof. Dr. Wei-Qiao Deng

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402162

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      CO2 cycles go round: Zinc-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers have been used as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 fixation. This polymer can be used to efficiently catalyze the reaction of internal epoxides with CO2 to form functional organic carbonates. Excellent catalytic activities and improved recyclability of this polymer have been achieved.

    6. A High-Capacity, Low-Cost Layered Sodium Manganese Oxide Material as Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries (pages 2115–2119)

      Shaohua Guo, Dr. Haijun Yu, Dr. Zelang Jian, Dr. Pan Liu, Dr. Yanbei Zhu, Dr. Xianwei Guo, Prof. Mingwei Chen, Prof. Masayoshi Ishida and Prof. Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402138

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      A layered cake of Birnessite: A sodium manganese oxide (NaMn3O5) material is synthesized with the aim to use it as cathode material in sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterization reveals that the material has a layered Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of synthetic nanosheets. When used as cathode in a test sodium-ion battery, the materials enables extremely large capacity and exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg−1.

    7. Poly-benzylic Ammonium Chloride Resins as Solid Catalysts for Fructose Dehydration (pages 2120–2124)

      Siew Ping Teong, Dr. Guangshun Yi, Dr. Xueqin Cao and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402131

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      I′m a resin I′m a saint: A poly-benzyl ammonium chloride (PBnNH3Cl) resin is developed and proves to be a highly efficient and stable solid catalyst for the dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). In the isopropanol system, PBnNH3Cl produces high-purity HMF, from fructose as well as inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber, that is suitable as feedstock for oxidization to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA).

    8. Ultrathin Graphitic C3N4 Nanosheets/Graphene Composites: Efficient Organic Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction (pages 2125–2130)

      Dr. Jingqi Tian, Qian Liu, Prof. Abdullah M. Asiri, Dr. Khalid A. Alamry and Prof. Xuping Sun

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402118

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      Thin is N: Ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets/graphene composites can serve as an efficient organic electrocatalyst toward oxygen evolution reaction with high activity and good durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that the catalytic activity results from pyridinic-N active sites of the g-C3N4.

    9. Purification of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Its Catalytic Conversion to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (pages 2131–2135)

      Dr. Guangshun Yi, Siew Ping Teong, Dr. Xiukai Li and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402105

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      Hell hath no furan: A simple and effective water extraction method to purify 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) obtained from biomass dehydration system is reported. Up to 99 % of the HMF can be recovered and the aqueous solution of HMF can be directly used for further catalytic oxidization reaction to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) as the sole product. This purification technique allows an integrated process to produce FDCA from fructose via HMF

    10. Towards a Zero-Waste Oxidative Coupling of Nonactivated Aromatics by Supported Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2136–2139)

      Dr. Pedro Serna and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402061

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      No more waste: Supported gold nanoparticles catalyze the coupling of unactivated arenes in O2 without the typical need of iodine oxidants, acids, bases, or additional metal salts in solution to result in a zero-waste synthetic process. This is in contrast to other catalysts that can perform for only a few turnovers and produce large quantities of waste.

    11. Monitoring Structural Dynamics of In situ Spray-Deposited Zinc Oxide Films for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2140–2145)

      Kuhu Sarkar, Erik V. Braden, Stefan Pogorzalek, Dr. Shun Yu, Dr. Stephan V. Roth and Prof. Dr. Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402049

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      One layer at a time: Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are performed to track the structural evolution and fast drying of an in situ spray-deposited nanostructured zinc oxide film. Multiple spray coats provide a considerable film thickness for use as an active layer in a dye-sensitized solar cell.

    12. Molybdenum Carbide as a Highly Selective Deoxygenation Catalyst for Converting Furfural to 2-Methylfuran (pages 2146–2149)

      Ke Xiong, Dr. Wen-Sheng Lee, Prof. Aditya Bhan and Prof. Jingguang G. Chen

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402033

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      Your MoMo so cat, she splits furfural: Molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) is identified as a highly selective deoxygenation catalyst for making 2-methylfuran from furfural through combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, surface science and flow reactor experiments. These results indicate the promising application of Mo2C in upgrading biomass-derived oxygenates including furanics and aromatics.

    13. Solid-State Perovskite-Sensitized p-Type Mesoporous Nickel Oxide Solar Cells (pages 2150–2153)

      Dr. Haining Tian, Bo Xu, Hong Chen, Dr. Erik M. J. Johansson and Dr. Gerrit Boschloo

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402032

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      Solid piece of work: A new concept for solid-state mesoscopic NiO/perovskite solar cells is proposed. The solid-state p-type mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO)-based solar cells use the perovskite material (CH3NH3)PbI3 as photosensitizer. They reach notable conversion efficiencies of up to 1.5% with an impressive open-circuit voltage of 830 mV. The efficiency is a record for NiO mesoscopic solar cells.

    14. Selective Route to 2-Propenyl Aryls Directly from Wood by a Tandem Organosolv and Palladium-Catalysed Transfer Hydrogenolysis (pages 2154–2158)

      Maxim V. Galkin and Dr. Joseph S. M. Samec

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402017

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      Working in tandem: A tandem organosolv pulping and Pd-catalysed transfer hydrogenolysis depolymerization and deoxygenation method is developed to generate 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(prop-1-enyl)phenol in 49 % yield starting from birch wood. Only endogenous hydrogen from wood is consumed, and the reaction is performed using green solvents.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Vertical Distribution of Overpotentials and Irreversible Charge Losses in Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes (pages 2159–2166)

      Dr. Stefan Klink, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Dr. Fabio La Mantia

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400056

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      Electrochemical sieving: Porous electrodes are characterized by a vertical distribution of cross currents. In an appropriate simplification, the cross-current distribution can be described by a transmission line model consisting of thin electrode layers. Using a multi-layered working electrode as experimental analogue of the transmission line model, it is shown that electrolyte additives and contaminants are unevenly reduced in graphite lithium ion battery electrodes during the first charge.

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      Application of In Operando UV/Vis Spectroscopy in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries (pages 2167–2175)

      Manu U. M. Patel and Dr. Robert Dominko

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402215

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      As it happens: A newly developed method for the deconvolution of UV/Vis spectra back into concentrations enables the study of the polysulfide shuttle mechanism in the different environments of lithium–sulfur batteries. The method is used to systematically study two different electrolytes. It is possible to distinguish the differences in the mechanism of polysulfide shuttling between two electrolytes and to correlate differences in capacity fading.

    3. Promising Aquivion Composite Membranes based on Fluoroalkyl Zirconium Phosphate for Fuel Cell Applications (pages 2176–2184)

      Dr. Anna Donnadio, Dr. Monica Pica, Dr. Surya Subianto, Dr. Deborah J. Jones, Dr. Paula Cojocaru and Prof. Mario Casciola

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402209

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      Killing two birds with one stone: Organically modified zirconium phosphate (ZPR) with fluorinated alkyl chains is used as a filler with a short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) to obtain mechanically reinforced composite membranes with improved conductivity and reduced hydration compared to the PFSA.

    4. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Cyclic Vicinal Diols to Cyclic Alcohols over Tungsten Oxide–Palladium Catalysts (pages 2185–2192)

      Dr. Yasushi Amada, Nobuhiko Ota, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402188

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      Synergy Catalysis: A high yield of 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran is achieved from the partial hydrodeoxygenation of 1,4-anhydroerythritol over a heterogeneous WOx–Pd/ZrO2 catalyst. The tungsten center is reduced by palladium, and H2 works as the reductant for the hydrodeoxygenation.

    5. A Tailored Catalyst for the Sustainable Conversion of Glycerol to Acrolein: Mechanistic Aspect of Sequential Dehydration (pages 2193–2201)

      Danim Yun, Tae Yong Kim, Dae Sung Park, Yang Sik Yun, Prof. Jeong Woo Han and Prof. Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402057

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      A maze of holes and acid is all it takes: A highly stable and selective catalyst for the sequential dehydration of glycerol to acrolein is presented. Outstanding performance is achieved due to the superior recyclability of Brønsted acid sites and hierarchical structure with meso- and macropores. The former hinders 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde degradation during sequential dehydration and the latter enhances the intrinsic coke resistivity.

    6. Nanostructured Manganese Oxides as Highly Active Water Oxidation Catalysts: A Boost from Manganese Precursor Chemistry (pages 2202–2211)

      Dr. Prashanth W. Menezes, Dr. Arindam Indra, Patrick Littlewood, Dr. Michael Schwarze, Dr. Caren Göbel, Prof. Dr. Reinhard Schomäcker and Prof. Dr. Matthias Driess

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402169

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      Natural to Artificial: A low temperature single-source precursor approach has been used to synthesize three different manganese oxide phases under various reaction conditions. These bioinspired photosystem II catalysts can be used for efficient chemical and photochemical water oxidation.

    7. Hollow Nanospheres Constructed by CoS2 Nanosheets with a Nitrogen-Doped-Carbon Coating for Energy-Storage and Photocatalysis (pages 2212–2220)

      Dr. Shengjie Peng, Dr. Linlin Li, Prof. Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar, Madhavi Srinivasan, Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna and Prof. Qingyu Yan

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402161

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      The coating edge! Hierarchical CoS2 hollow nanospheres with a nitrogen-doped-carbon coating are fabricated by a simple solution method. The resultant composite material, benefiting from its unique overall architectural traits, has superior electrochemical and photocatalytic performance and shows great promise in energy-storage and photocatalytic degradation applications.

    8. Phenothiazinedioxide-Conjugated Sensitizers and a Dual-TEMPO/Iodide Redox Mediator for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2221–2229)

      Ryan Yeh-Yung Lin, Te-Chun Chu, Ping-Wei Chen, Jen-Shyang Ni, Pei-Chieh Shih, Yung-Chung Chen, Prof. Kuo-Chuan Ho and Prof. Jiann T. Lin

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402160

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      An electric disposition: Metal-free dyes based on an arylamine donor and an acceptor containing a phenothiazinedioxide unit in the spacer have been designed and synthesized. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazinedioxide using a chenodeoxycholic acid co-adsorbent and a dual 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/iodide electrolyte exhibit high light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies.

    9. Pd–Tetrahydrosalan-Type Complexes as Catalysts for Sonogashira Couplings in Water: Efficient Greening of the Procedure (pages 2230–2239)

      Krisztina Voronova, Levente Homolya, Dr. Antal Udvardy, Dr. Attila C. Bényei and Prof. Ferenc Joó

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402147

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      Exclusive partnership: Water-soluble sulfonated tetrahydrosalen complexes of palladium(II) efficiently catalyze the Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides and terminal alkynes in aqueous–organic biphasic mixtures under mild conditions. Instead of extraction with organic solvents, several of the products can be isolated in high purity by simple filtration.

    10. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cellulose at a Gold Electrode (pages 2240–2247)

      Dr. Yasuhito Sugano, Dr. Rose-Marie Latonen, Dr. Marceline Akieh-Pirkanniemi, Prof. Dr. Johan Bobacka and Prof. Dr. Ari Ivaska

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402139

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      Electro-great: Cellulose is electrocatalytically oxidized at a Au electrode in alkaline solution. The reaction is irreversible, and two reaction products are obtained. One is a water-soluble cellulose derivative, and the other is a water-insoluble hybrid material composed of cellulose and Au nanoparticles.

    11. Lithium-Ion Transport through a Tailored Disordered Phase on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Surface for High-Power Cathode Materials (pages 2248–2254)

      Mi Ru Jo, Dr. Yong-Il Kim, Yunok Kim, Ji Su Chae, Dr. Kwang Chul Roh, Prof. Won-Sub Yoon and Prof. Yong-Mook Kang

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402109

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      From disorder comes super power! Phosphidated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 shows high rate capability with an excellent cycle performance. Increased disordered phase originating from the locally modified surface structure facilitates Li+ diffusion and maximizes power density.

    12. A Continuous Flow Strategy for the Coupled Transfer Hydrogenation and Etherification of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural using Lewis Acid Zeolites (pages 2255–2265)

      Jennifer D. Lewis, Dr. Stijn Van de Vyver, Dr. Anthony J. Crisci, William R. Gunther, Dr. Vladimir K. Michaelis, Prof. Robert G. Griffin and Prof. Yuriy Román-Leshkov

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402100

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      Go with the continuous flow: The title reaction was investigated under continuous flow conditions in the presence of Hf-, Zr-, and Sn-Beta zeolites. Product distribution studies and a thorough characterization of the catalysts reveal that their deactivation can be correlated to changes in the local environment of the metal sites.

    13. Tunable and Selective Conversion of 5-HMF to 2,5-Furandimethanol and 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Copper-Doped Porous Metal Oxides (pages 2266–2275)

      Angela J. Kumalaputri, Dr. Giovanni Bottari, Petra M. Erne, Prof. Dr. Hero J. Heeres and Dr. Katalin Barta

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402095

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      With a little help from Ru: Selective and tunable hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with earth-abundant, copper-based porous metal oxides (Cu-PMOs) is achieved. Addition of a small amount of ruthenium dopant enhances the combined selectivity to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (DMTHF) under optimized conditions.

    14. Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin in Supercritical Ethanol (pages 2276–2288)

      Xiaoming Huang, Dr. Tamás I. Korányi, Dr. Michael D. Boot and Prof. Dr. Emiel J. M. Hensen

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402094

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      Good cop, good cop: Valorization of lignin in supercritical ethanol using a copper-containing mixed oxide results in high monomer yield (23 wt %) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products and almost half of this monomer fraction is free of oxygen. Ethanol acts as hydrogen-donor solvent as well as capping agent, stabilizing through C- and O-alkylation the highly reactive phenolic intermediates and suppressing repolymerization reactions.

    15. Thermoset Coatings from Epoxidized Sucrose Soyate and Blocked, Bio-Based Dicarboxylic Acids (pages 2289–2294)

      Dr. Curtiss S. Kovash Jr., Dr. Erin Pavlacky, Dr. Sermadurai Selvakumar, Prof. Mukund P. Sibi and Prof. Dean C. Webster

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402091

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      Blockbuster: A solvent-free, green method was used to block bio-based dicarboxylic acids, rendering them miscible with epoxidized sucrose soyate. The thermal reversibility of this blocking allowed the formulation of epoxy-acid thermoset coatings that are 100 % bio-based. These systems have good adhesion to metal substrates and perform well under chemical and physical stress.

    16. Aqueous Batteries Based on Mixed Monovalence Metal Ions: A New Battery Family (pages 2295–2302)

      Dr. Liang Chen, Leyuan Zhang, Prof. Xufeng Zhou and Prof. Zhaoping Liu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402084

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      A New Battery Family: Two new aqueous batteries based on monovalence metal ions (Li+/K+ and Na+/K+) as charge-transfer ions are demonstrated. They deliver high specific energy, superior to current aqueous battery systems. The establishment of these batteries together with the previous Li+/Na+ mixed-ion battery not only constitutes a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broadens our horizons for battery research.

    17. Combination of Carbon Nitride and Carbon Nanotubes: Synergistic Catalysts for Energy Conversion (pages 2303–2309)

      Yutong Gong, Jing Wang, Zhongzhe Wei, Pengfei Zhang, Haoran Li and Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402078

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      The start of a beautiful friendship: A series of graphitic carbon nitride/carbon nanotubes (g-C3N4/CNTs) composites are fabricated. They demonstrated different practical applications with different weight ratios of the components, that is, they showed synergistic effects in optoelectronic conversion when g-C3N4 was the main ingredient and in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) when CNTs dominated the composites. The individual components show synergistic effects in both aspects.

    18. High-Power Lithium-Ion Capacitor using LiMnBO3-Nanobead Anode and Polyaniline-Nanofiber Cathode with Excellent Cycle Life (pages 2310–2316)

      Dr. Kaliyappan Karthikeyan, Samuthirapandian Amaresh, Sol-Nip Lee, Jae-Yeon An and Prof. Yun-Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402055

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      Super performer: A high-performance lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated using a LiMnBO3-nanobead anode and a polyaniline-nanofiber cathode in an organic electrolyte. The LIC cell showed superior rate performance investigation relative to other LICs constructed by anodes of various lithium intercalation materials and activated carbon cathodes.

    19. Synergistic Fusion of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes (pages 2317–2324)

      Dong Han Seo, Samuel Yick, Dr. Zhao Jun Han, Dr. Jing Hua Fang and Prof. Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402045

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      Better from butter: A hybrid structure grown directly from carbon nanotubes on vertical graphene nanosheets is used to construct supercapacitors and its performance is evaluated. The intrinsic challenges inherent in both materials can be overcome through a synergistic fusion of the two structures and augments their electrochemical performance in the hybrid. This method is substrate independent and can thus be applied to a large variety of substrates.

    20. Growth of Hierarchical 3D Mesoporous NiSix/NiCo2O4 Core/Shell Heterostructures on Nickel Foam for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2325–2334)

      Qiaobao Zhang, Huixin Chen, Jiexi Wang, Daguo Xu, Xinhai Li, Yong Yang and Kaili Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402039

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      No place like foam: Hierarchical 3D mesoporous NiSix/NiCo2O4 core/shell nanowire arrays are synthesized on nickel foam by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) combined with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The resultant nanowire arrays demonstrate enhanced electrochemical performance as binder- and conductive-agent-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with excellent capacity retention and high rate capability on cycling.

    21. Modulated Ionomer Distribution in the Catalyst Layer of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells for High Temperature Operation (pages 2335–2341)

      Min-Ju Choo, Keun-Hwan Oh, Prof. Hee-Tak Kim and Prof. Jung-Ki Park

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402015

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      Ionomer distribution modulation: A series of new catalyst layers for high temperature operation was fabricated through a simple poly(ethylene glycol) addition and leaching process. The ionomer domain was expanded by poly(ethylene glycol) addition, resulting in an increase in the electrochemical active area and proton transport without loss in oxygen transport, at a fixed ionomer content.

    22. Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst Containing Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for the Production of Furfurals (pages 2342–2350)

      Michael G. Mazzotta, Dinesh Gupta, Dr. Basudeb Saha, Dr. Astam K. Patra, Prof. Dr. Asim Bhaumik and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402007

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      A tale of two acids: A Brønsted and Lewis acidic sulfonated carbonaceous catalyst is prepared by a one-pot synthesis method. The catalyst with a Lewis-to-Brønsted acid density ratio of 1.2 is effective for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural from carbohydrates in a biphasic solvent of water and methyltetrahydrofuran.

    23. Mechanistic Insight into Oxide-Promoted Palladium Catalysts for the Electro-Oxidation of Ethanol (pages 2351–2357)

      Dr. Ulises Martinez, Dr. Alexey Serov, Monica Padilla and Dr. Plamen Atanassov

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402062

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      Which way to go? A correlation between in situ IR spectroelectrochemical studies and voltammetry studies is used to obtain mechanistic insight into the ethanol electro-oxidation pathways on oxide-promoted palladium catalysts. Evidence is presented for the intrinsic effect obtained from an alloyed system and the synergistic effect produced from the promotion of oxide phases.

    24. Impact of the Electron-Transport Layer on the Performance of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells (pages 2358–2364)

      Guankui Long, Dr. Xiangjian Wan, Bin Kan, Zhicheng Hu, Xuan Yang, Yi Zhang, Dr. Mingtao Zhang, Prof. Hongbing Wu, Prof. Fei Huang, Prof. Shijian Su, Prof. Yong Cao and Prof. Yongsheng Chen

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402171

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      Efficient electron transport: The effect of two solution-processed electron-transport layers, PFN and ZnO nanoparticles, on the performance of small-molecule-based devices is investigated, and improved power conversion efficiencies are achieved. The combination of reduced bimolecular recombination and increased photon absorption contribute to the improved performance.

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