ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 6

March 2015

Volume 8, Issue 6

Pages 911–1094

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Cover Picture: Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 Catalysts for the Conversion of Ethanol into Butadiene (ChemSusChem 6/2015) (page 911)

      Wout Janssens, Dr. Ekaterina V. Makshina, Pieter Vanelderen, Dr. Filip De Clippel, Kristof Houthoofd, Stef Kerkhofs, Prof. Dr. Johan A. Martens, Prof. Dr. Pierre A. Jacobs and Prof. Dr. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows the cradle-to-cradle value chain from biomass, in this case corn starch, which is fermented to bio-ethanol and converted by our process to butadiene. The butadiene then serves as a building block for renewable rubber tires. The latter can be recycled or incinerated and serve again as feedstock. More details on the process of direct formation of butadiene from ethanol using a silver-loaded MgO-SiO2 catalyst can be found in the Full Paper by W. Janssens et al. on page 994 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402894).

    2. Inside Cover: Selective Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Sorbitol to Fructose and Sorbose (ChemSusChem 6/2015) (page 912)

      Dr. Youngkook Kwon, Dr. Ed de Jong, Dr. Jan Kees van der Waal and Prof. Dr. Marc T. M. Koper

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500079

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      The Inside Cover image shows a new electrocatalytic method for the selective electrochemical oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose by using a platinum electrode promoted by p-block metal atoms. By studying a range of C4, C5, and C6 polyols, it is found that the promoter interferes with the stereochemistry of the polyol and thereby modifies its reactivity. This simple and robust approach could be easily scaled or translated into aqueous-phase heterogeneous catalysis. More details can be found in the Communication by Kwon et al. on page 970 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402880).

    3. Inside Back Cover: Effects of Catalyst Pore Structure and Acid Properties on the Dehydration of Glycerol (ChemSusChem 6/2015) (page 1095)

      Youngbo Choi, Hongseok Park, Yang Sik Yun and Prof. Dr. Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500173

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      The Inside Back Cover picture shows the transformation of glycerol into acrolein over a hierarchically mesoporous acid catalyst particle (shown in the center of the picture). The excellent performance of this catalyst is attributed to the combined action of enhanced accessibility to the active sites and acidic properties. The benefits of the catalysts are demonstrated by reaction tests in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability. In addition, comparisons with microporous HZSM-5 and mesoporous AlMCM-41 are provided for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of pore structures and the acid properties on the dehydration of glycerol. More details can be found in the Communication by Choi et al. on page 

    4. Back Cover:Synthesis of Lithium Iron Phosphate/Carbon Microspheres by Using Polyacrylic Acid Coated Iron Phosphate Nanoparticles Derived from Iron(III) Acrylate (ChemSusChem 6/2015) (page 1096)

      Dongwei Xu, Prof. Yan-Bing He, Xiaodong Chu, Dr. Zhaojun Ding, Prof. Baohua Li, Jianfu He, Prof. Hongda Du, Xianying Qin and Prof. Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500120

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      The Back Cover picture shows that iron(III) acrylate can be used as precursor for both iron and carbon source of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres with high rate and cycling performance. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a co-precipitation reaction. The acrylic acid ions produced as a by-product are in situ polymerized into a uniform polyacrylic acid layer coated on the surface of FePO4 nanoparticles. The utilization of by-product is good from a sustainability point of view. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Xu et al. on page 1009 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403060).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 Catalysts for the Conversion of Ethanol into Butadiene (page 913)

      Wout Janssens, Dr. Ekaterina V. Makshina, Pieter Vanelderen, Dr. Filip De Clippel, Kristof Houthoofd, Stef Kerkhofs, Prof. Dr. Johan A. Martens, Prof. Dr. Pierre A. Jacobs and Prof. Dr. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500081

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      “Research is moving more to catalyzed chemical processes for the utilization and the integrated processing of biomass feedstocks…” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page 913 (10.1002/cssc.201500081). View the Front Cover on page 911 (10.1002/cssc.201500080).

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 6/2015 (pages 914–921)

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201590010

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 6/2015 (pages 922–923)

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201590011

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
  6. Viewpoint

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Across the Board: Brent H. Shanks (pages 928–930)

      Prof. Brent H. Shanks

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500227

      Biobased platform chemicals: Brent H. Shanks, a member of ChemSusChem′s International Advisory Board, discusses how biobased platform technologies can be used to breathe new life into traditional, petroleum-based chemical processes. The synthesis of these platform molecules using a wide variety of (also biobased) methods can yield drop-in chemicals or novel compounds of so far unknown utility.

  7. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Carbon Nitride in Energy Conversion and Storage: Recent Advances and Future Prospects (pages 931–946)

      Yutong Gong, Mingming Li and Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403287

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      For use later: Favorable properties of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), such as semiconductor optical properties, rich nitrogen content, and tunable porous structure, have attracted attention for applications as electrode materials or catalysts. This review describes advanced applications of g-C3N4 in energy conversion and storage.

    2. Acidic Ionic Liquids as Sustainable Approach of Cellulose and Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion without Additional Catalysts (pages 947–965)

      André M. da Costa Lopes and Rafał Bogel-Łukasik

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402950

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      Biomass with acidic ionic liquids: The unique ability of acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to catalyse lignocellulosic biomass without additional catalyst within the biorefinery approach has attracted considerable attention recently. The selective production of monosaccharides, furans and organic acids from biomass can be performed in a one-pot process under specific conditions. The acidic properties of ILs play a crucial role in biomass processing. The product and IL recovery are the main challenges of this new technology.

  8. Highlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. The Solar Textile Challenge: How It Will Not Work and Where It Might (pages 966–969)

      Frederik C. Krebs and Markus Hösel

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403377

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      Wear the sun: Integration of flexible solar cells into textiles are highlighted by a short review of the literature followed by the identification of fundamental, scientific, technical, and practical areas of research where efficient solutions are needed before large-scale application can be envisaged. Weaving of solar cell tapes is also reported and demonstrated here as an efficient solution to control polarity, power extraction, contacting, encapsulation, and manufacture.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Selective Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Sorbitol to Fructose and Sorbose (pages 970–973)

      Dr. Youngkook Kwon, Dr. Ed de Jong, Dr. Jan Kees van der Waal and Prof. Dr. Marc T. M. Koper

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402880

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New cats on the block: A new electrocatalytic method for the selective electrochemical oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose is developed by using a platinum electrode promoted by p-block metal atoms. By studying a range of C4, C5, and C6 polyols, it is found that the promoter interferes with the stereochemistry of the polyol and thereby modifies its reactivity.

    2. Effects of Catalyst Pore Structure and Acid Properties on the Dehydration of Glycerol (pages 974–979)

      Youngbo Choi, Hongseok Park, Yang Sik Yun and Prof. Dr. Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402925

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Combined action: Hierarchically mesoporous acidic nanocatalysts with different acidic properties are used for the dehydration of glycerol. A comparison of the nanocatalysts with microporous and mesoporous acid-catalysts verifies the benefits of hierarchical pores on enhancing the apparent activity and stability of the catalyst, but also highlights that overall catalytic performance is determined by the combined action of porous and acidic properties.

    3. Room Temperature Organocatalyzed Reductive Depolymerization of Waste Polyethers, Polyesters, and Polycarbonates (pages 980–984)

      Elias Feghali and Dr. Thibault Cantat

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silanes pitted against waste: The reductive depolymerization of a variety of polymeric materials based on polyethers, polyesters, and polycarbonates is described, using hydrosilanes as reductants and metal-free catalysts. This strategy enables the selective depolymerization of waste polymers as well as bio-based polyesters to functional chemicals such as alcohols and phenols at room temperature.

    4. Carbon-Supported Base Metal Nanoparticles: Cellulose at Work (pages 985–989)

      Dr. Jacco Hoekstra, Marjan Versluijs-Helder, Edward J. Vlietstra, Prof. Dr. John W. Geus and Prof. Dr. Leonardus W. Jenneskens

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403364

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      Mutually beneficial: Pyrolysis under inert conditions of base-metal-salt-loaded (CuII, NiII, CoII or FeIII) microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives homogeneously distributed carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles. Cellulose is converted into an amorphous carbon, which concurrently acts both as support and reductant. The nickel, cobalt, or iron nanoparticles catalyze the graphitization of the amorphous carbon support.

    5. Photocurrent Generation from Thylakoid Membranes on Osmium-Redox-Polymer-Modified Electrodes (pages 990–993)

      Dr. Hassan Hamidi, Kamrul Hasan, Dr. Sinan Cem Emek, Prof. Yusuf Dilgin, Prof. Hans-Erik Åkerlund, Prof. Per-Åke Albertsson, Prof. Dónal Leech and Prof. Lo Gorton

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403200

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      Wizards of Os: Thylakoid membranes are uniquely suited for photosynthesis owing to their distinctive structure and composition. Thylakoid membranes on electrodes modified with osmium polymers are used to generate photocurrents. The osmium polymers, of different redox potentials, are used to optimize the energy gap in the electron transfer from the photosynthetic reaction centers to the osmium polymer and the electrode.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Viewpoint
    8. Reviews
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 Catalysts for the Conversion of Ethanol into Butadiene (pages 994–1008)

      Wout Janssens, Dr. Ekaterina V. Makshina, Pieter Vanelderen, Dr. Filip De Clippel, Kristof Houthoofd, Stef Kerkhofs, Prof. Dr. Johan A. Martens, Prof. Dr. Pierre A. Jacobs and Prof. Dr. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402894

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Renewable route to butadiene: A silver-loaded MgO-SiO2 catalyst is active in the direct formation of butadiene from ethanol. Preparation steps have significant impact on internal organization of the final catalyst in terms of redox-acid/base properties. Based on extensive characterizations, a model is constructed to describe the catalytic activity of this system.

    2. Synthesis of Lithium Iron Phosphate/Carbon Microspheres by Using Polyacrylic Acid Coated Iron Phosphate Nanoparticles Derived from Iron(III) Acrylate (pages 1009–1016)

      Dongwei Xu, Prof. Yan-Bing He, Xiaodong Chu, Dr. Zhaojun Ding, Prof. Baohua Li, Jianfu He, Prof. Hongda Du, Xianying Qin and Prof. Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403060

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      Under cover: Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4/C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performances are synthesized from nanoparticles. A complete carbon coating on the surface of the primary nanoparticles, derived from carbonation of the in situ polymerized PAA layer, controls the grain growth effectively and greatly enhances the electronic and ionic conductivities of the LiFePO4/C electrode.

    3. Synergetic Effects of Al3+ Doping and Graphene Modification on the Electrochemical Performance of V2O5 Cathode Materials (pages 1017–1025)

      Kai Zhu, Hailong Qiu, Yongquan Zhang, Dr. Dong Zhang, Prof. Dr. Gang Chen and Prof. Dr. Yingjin Wei

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500027

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      Electrode dreams: Graphene-modified Al0.16V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanomaterial shows a high discharge capacity, good rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effects of Al3+ doping and RGO wrapping, which not only increases the structural stability of the V2O5 lattice but also improves the electrochemical kinetics of the material.

    4. Governing Chemistry of Cellulose Hydrolysis in Supercritical Water (pages 1026–1033)

      Dr. Danilo A. Cantero, Dr. M. Dolores Bermejo and Prof. Dr. M. José Cocero

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403385

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      Just add water: A reaction mechanism for cellulose hydrolysis that can explain the huge selectivity of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water is presented. The model of the reaction mechanism has been validated by several experiments carried out in a continuous pilot plant capable at various conditions. It was found that the proton and hydroxide anion concentration in the medium due to water dissociation (represented by the ionic product of water, Kw) is the determining factor in the selectivity of the process.

    5. New Iron Pyridylamino-Bis(Phenolate) Catalyst for Converting CO2 into Cyclic Carbonates and Cross-Linked Polycarbonates (pages 1034–1042)

      Masoumeh Taherimehr, João Paulo Cardoso Costa Sertã, Prof. Arjan W. Kleij, Dr. Christopher J. Whiteoak and Prof. Paolo P. Pescarmona

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403323

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      CO2 meets epoxides: Iron pyridylamino-bis(phenolate) complexes are highly active catalysts for the atom-efficient reaction of CO2 with a variety of epoxides. The selectivity can be switched between the cyclic or polymeric carbonate when using cyclic epoxides such as cyclohexene oxide and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinylcyclohexaneas substrates. Cross-linking of the obtained poly(vinylcyclohexene carbonate) leads to substantial increase in the Tg and chemical resistance of the polymer.

    6. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures (pages 1043–1048)

      Dr. Fang Zhang, Nicole LaBarge, Wulin Yang, Dr. Jia Liu and Prof. Bruce E. Logan

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403290

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      Low-grade thermal energy: A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a promising approach for the effective conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electrical power. If onsite waste heat was utilized to operate the TRAB at elevated temperatures, the maximum power density increased linearly with the operating temperature and reached a maximum of 236±8 W m−2 at 72 °C.

    7. Superior Capacitive Performance of Hydrochar-Based Porous Carbons in Aqueous Electrolytes (pages 1049–1057)

      Antonio B. Fuertes and Marta Sevilla

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403267

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      Supercapacity of biomass: KOH activation of mixtures of melamine and hydrochar allows the synthesis of highly micro-mesoporous materials in contrast to the exclusively microporous materials obtained by KOH activation of solely hydrochar. The nitrogen-doped carbons thus produced show outstanding capacitive behavior in aqueous electrolytes, namely, H2SO4 (cell voltage=1 V) and Li2SO4 (cell voltage=1.6 V).

    8. Perovskite–Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Composite as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Lithium–Air Batteries (pages 1058–1065)

      Dr. Hey Woong Park, Dong Un Lee, Moon Gyu Park, Raihan Ahmed, Dr. Min Ho Seo, Prof. Linda F. Nazar and Prof. Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402986

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      OER and OER again: We introduce a perovskite La0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF) nanoparticle-based nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNT) composite (op-LN) as a novel bifunctional catalyst. This catalyst demonstrates oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances that are comparable to those of Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts, respectively, with much improved durability.

    9. Mo-Doped BiVO4 Photoanodes Synthesized by Reactive Sputtering (pages 1066–1071)

      Dr. Le Chen, Dr. Francesca M. Toma, Dr. Jason K. Cooper, Alan Lyon, Dr. Yongjing Lin, Dr. Ian D. Sharp and Dr. Joel W. Ager

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402984

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      Make like a thin film and split: A reactive sputtering process for the synthesis of Mo-doped BiVO4 thin film photoanodes is demonstrated. Use of an optically thin water oxidation catalyst allows for stable operation under light-driven water oxidation conditions using the front illumination geometry of relevance to the development of tandem water splitting devices.

    10. Mitigation of Chemical Membrane Degradation in Fuel Cells: Understanding the Effect of Cell Voltage and Iron Ion Redox Cycle (pages 1072–1082)

      Ka Hung Wong and Dr. Erik Kjeang

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402957

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      Membrane stability controlled by iron ion dynamics: An essential, yet previously missing link in the fundamental understanding of chemical membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells is presented. An iron ion redox cycle is discovered within the membrane and catalyst layers during fuel cell operation. This redox cycle is shown to be the underlying mechanism for the cell potential dependency of the chemical degradation of the membrane, which can be mitigated by operation at intermediate cell voltages.

    11. Lewis Acid Activation of Pyridines for Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution and Conjugate Addition (pages 1083–1087)

      Sarah Abou-Shehada, Matthew C. Teasdale, Dr. Steven D. Bull, Dr. Charles E. Wade and Prof. Jonathan M. J. Williams

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403154

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      Pyridine gets active: For the first time, the catalytic activation of the pyridine ring towards nucleophilic aromatic substitution, conjugate addition, and Diels–Alder reactions is reported. The method utilizes a cheap, non-toxic zinc-based Lewis acid, which binds to the nitrogen of the pyridine ring and activates it towards nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The reaction tolerates a variety of incoming groups and proceeds cleanly and under mild reaction conditions.

    12. Xylose Isomerization with Zeolites in a Two-Step Alcohol–Water Process (pages 1088–1094)

      Dr. Marta Paniagua, Dr. Shunmugavel Saravanamurugan, Mayra Melian-Rodriguez, Prof. Juan A. Melero and Prof. Anders Riisager

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402965

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      Appropriate acidity? Large-pore zeolites efficiently isomerize xylose to form xylulose in a two-step methanol–water process with high yields compared with enzymes. The reaction pathway involves two steps: xylose isomerization to xylulose, followed by hydrolysis to form additional xylulose.

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