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Keywords:

  • current conveyor;
  • nodal analysis;
  • nullor;
  • symbolic analysis;
  • universal filter

Abstract

New nullor-based models are introduced to describe the behavior of the first generation current conveyor (CCI), second generation current conveyor (CCII), third generation current conveyor (CCIII), their inverting equivalents (ICCI(II)(III)), and/or their multiple output topologies (MO(I)CCI(II)(III)). These nullor equivalents include only grounded resistors to improve the formulation of equations in symbolic nodal analysis. In this manner, it is highlighted the usefulness of the proposed models to calculate analytical expressions in MO(I)CCI(II)(III)-based analog circuits. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.