This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research/Naval Research Laboratory and DARPA/MTO. The use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the US Department of Energy, BES-Materials Sciences, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. JEB thanks S. Rotter, T. Feygelson, K. Hobart, and H. Windischmann for their assistance on NCD. AVS thanks his collaborators Orlando Auciello, Robert W. Carpick, David Grierson, John Carlisle, and PUPA Gilbert on the work on UNCD. The authors thank the referees for constructive comments.
The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials†
Article first published online: 15 AUG 2008
Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Special Issue: Special Issue on Nanodiamond
Volume 14, Issue 7-8, pages 145–160, July/August 2008
How to Cite
Butler, J. E. and Sumant, A. V. (2008), The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials. Chem. Vap. Deposition, 14: 145–160. doi: 10.1002/cvde.200700037
- Issue published online: 15 AUG 2008
- Article first published online: 15 AUG 2008
- Manuscript Revised: 23 JAN 2008
- Manuscript Received: 7 NOV 2007
- Nanocrystalline diamond;
- Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond
The growth and characteristics of nanocrystalline diamond thin films with thicknesses from 20 nm to less than 5 µm are reviewed. These materials contain between 95% and >99.9% diamond crystallites, the balance being made up from other forms of carbon. Within this class of materials there is a continuous range of composition, characteristics, and properties which depend on the nucleation and growth conditions. It is convenient to classify these films as either ultra-nanocrystalline-diamond (UNCD) or nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) based on their microstructure, properties, and growth environment. In general, UNCD materials are composed of small particles of diamond ca. 2–5 nm in size with sp2-carbon bonding between the particles. UNCD is usually grown in argon-rich, hydrogen-poor CVD environments, and may contain up to 95–98% sp3-bonded carbon. NCD materials start with high density nucleation, initiating nanometer-sized diamond domains which grow in a columnar manner with the grain size coarsening with thickness. NCD is generally grown in carbon-lean and hydrogen-rich environments. NCD and UNCD exhibit an interesting range of physical properties which find use in X-ray windows and lithography, micro- and nanomechanical and optical resonators, tribological shaft seals and atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, electron field emitters, platforms for chemical and DNA sensing, and many other applications.