• Graft polymerization;
  • Hydrophilicity;
  • Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone);
  • Scleral lenses;
  • Biomaterials


Grafting (g)CVD from the monomer 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) and the Type II initiator benzophenone (BP) under 254 nm UV irradiation yields durable hydrophilic coatings on substrates of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) derivatives, desirable for scleral lens applications. The gCVD polymerization of the VP monomer is essentially complete, and little excess BP remains in the film. Process optimization, through single variable and two fractional factorial experiments, result in retention of >90% of the as-deposited film thickness after rinsing. Increasing the initiator dosing time beyond 10 min, or the UV exposure time beyond 5 min, has little effect on the as-deposited thickness, or percentage of film retained after rinsing. This suggests that UV irradiation rapidly transforms most of the BP absorbed on the surface to initiating radicals. Once sufficient initiator dosage and UV exposure have been achieved, the initial deposition thickness is controlled primarily by the total flux of monomer to the surface, which is consistent with previous studies. For all samples, thickness loss occurs primarily during the first 30 days of saline soak-testing with no statistically significant loss (p > 0.25) during the next 90 days of soak testing. While the additional UV exposure time has a limited effect on initial film thickness, it does increase long term thickness retention, most likely by forming crosslinked and branched structures within the film. All samples tested retain sufficient gCVD coating thickness to impart improved hydrophilicity at the surface throughout the entire 120 day saline soak-testing period. The fractional factorial experiments correlate improved hydrophilicity with an interaction between initiator dosage time and UV exposure time. Indeed, decreasing these two process variables in tandem provides the greatest reduction in contact angle. While the uncoated PMA displayed 92.3° ± 2.1° advancing and 86.7° ± 3.0° receding contact angles with water, the most hydrophilic gCVD coating lowers the advancing and receding contact angles to 39.5° ± 2.6° and 36.2° ± 1.6°, respectively.