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Preserving Particle Characteristics at Increasing Production Rate of ZnO Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Synthesis


  • Financial support was granted by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the Research Training Group GRK1240 (Nanotronics- Photovoltaik und Optoelektronik aus Nanopartikeln), by the Europian Union and by the Ministry of Innovation, Science and Research of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, NETZ). The authors would also like to thank Ralf Theissmann for obtaining TEM images of the ZnO particles.


ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) via various possible routes, i.e., by increasing the total pressure, the precursor concentration, the reactor diameter, and alternatively by parallelization through the use of parallel reactors, to increase the production rate. The influence on the particle characteristics, such as size, size distribution, degree of agglomeration, and crystallinity as an integral parameter for the defect level, is investigated. It is found that only the use of parallel tubes allows an increase in the production rate while preserving particle characteristics, whereas the other routes increase the production rate at the cost of altered particle characteristics.