Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Chemical Vapor Deposition

June, 2004

Volume 10, Issue 3

Pages 119–178

    1. Contents: Chem. Vap. Deposition 3/2004 (pages 119–121)

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200490006

    2. Book Review: Nonequilibrium Nondissipative Thermodynamics. By Ji-Tao Wang. (page 123)

      M. Pons and D. Ballutaud

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200490007

    3. Large-Area Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers by Low-Power Microwave Plasma-Assisted CVD (pages 125–128)

      G. Zhong, M. Tachiki, H. Umezawa, T. Fujisaki, H. Kawarada and I. Ohdomari

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304168

      Novel antenna edge microwave plasma CVD (AE-MPCVD) is used for the first time to grow CNFs (carbon nanofibers). The synthesis of CNFs on large-area substrates with high growth reproducibility is reported at low microwave power input and with remote deposition. A growth area ten times as large as the plasma size generated is achieved by AE-MPCVD. Because of its structural simplicity, AE-MPCVD systems can easily be scaled up by applying multi-antenna edge arrays without considering complex microwave geometry or cavity and the total growth area and quality of CNFs are thus expected to be greatly improved.

    4. Incubation Time during Chemical Vapor Deposition of Si onto SiO2 from Silane (pages 128–133)

      Y. Kajikawa, T. Tsuchiya, S. Noda and H. Komiyama

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304165

      Mechanisms controlling the deposition incubation time of Si on SiO2 are studied. Two major mechanisms are considered to affect the incubation time: desorption of adsorbate that is not captured by existing islands, and differing sticking probabilities between islands and substrate. Results indicate that desorption of adsorbate seems to have less contribution and the sticking probability mechanism controls island growth (Figure), and therefore is the main cause for the incubation time in silane CVD processes.

    5. Synthesis of Diamond Spheres (pages 133–136)

      J.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Baik, K.Y. Eun, J.-Y. Lee, J.-W. Park and P. John

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304170

      Diamond spheres with diameters in the range 150 to 600 nm have been synthesized by multi-cathode direct current CVD. The diameters of the spheres vary with the radial distance from the centre of the 100 mm diameter copper substrate. The powders are characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and XRD. TEM patterns show the internal structure to consist of nanocrystalline diamond grains exhibiting a Raman peak at 1334 cm–1, a form of diamond that has potential for a number of important applications including novel abrasives and drug delivery. A mechanism of homogeneous nucleation and growth is proposed.

    6. Photocatalytically Active γ-WO3 Films from Atmospheric Pressure CVD of WOCl4 with Ethyl Acetate or Ethanol (pages 136–141)

      S. O'Neill, I.P. Parkin, J.H. Clark, A. Mills and N. Elliott

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304167

      Coatings of yellow γ-WO3 are deposited on glass by APCVD of WOCl4 and either ethanol or ethylacetate at 350–450°C. The yellow films show significant photoactivity for the destruction of stearic acid, and photoinduced superhydrophilicity. Preparation of blue reduced WO2.92 films from the same reaction at higher substrate temperatures of 500–600 °C (Figure) is also found to be possible. These films show no photoactivity, but can be converted into the fully stoichiometric photoactive form simply by heating in air.

    7. Atomic Layer Deposition of Photocatalytic TiO2 Thin Films from Titanium Tetramethoxide and Water (pages 143–148)

      V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara and J. Keinonen

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306289

      A new Ti precursor is examined for the preparation of TiO2 thin films by ALD at 200–400°C. Titanium methoxide is identified as the alkoxide that allows the widest range of deposition temperatures. Films deposited from titanium tetramethoxide and water at 250 °C are shown to be crystalline anatase of high purity, and photocatalytically active in decomposing methylene blue in aqueous solution and solid stearic acid coated on the film surface. Films deposited at 200 °C are amorphous and photocatalytically inactive. With the exception of films prepared at 200 °C, films contain only minor amounts of carbon and hydrogen residues.

    8. Synthesis and Characterization of Tris(β-ketoiminato)ruthenium(III) Complexes: Potential Precursors for CVD of Ru and RuO2 Thin Films (pages 149–158)

      T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Lai, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Chi, K.R. Prasad, A.J. Carty, S.-M. Peng and G.-H. Lee

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306284

      Synthesis and characterization of a new Ru precursor [Ru(keim)3] (Figure) are reported (where (keim)H = ketoimine ligands HOC(CF3) = CHCR = NMe). Ru and RuO2 are successfully deposited using 2 % O2 in Ar or pure O2, respectively, as the reactive carrier gas. The physical properties of the precursors are found to seriously affect RuO2 growth behavior. The precursors show adequate thermal and chemical stability and are volatile at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen and at temperatures below 270 °C.

    9. Random Deposition as a Growth Mode in Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 159–170)

      R.L. Puurunen

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306283

      Theoretical ALD growth is approached by describing the random deposition growth mode quantitatively and qualitatively, using the growth per cycle as a statistical quantity. Growth mode is valuable in defining important material properties such as full substrate coverage by ALD-grown material and the surface roughness. Consequences of random deposition are illustrated for ALD processes with constant as well as non-constant values of growth per cycle.

    10. MOCVD of LaAlO3 Films from a Molten Precursor Mixture: Characterization of Liquid, Gas, and Deposited Phases (pages 171–177)

      G. Malandrino, G.G. Condorelli and R. Lo Nigro

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306286

      LaAlO3 thin films have been deposited on SrTiO3(100). The MOCVD process is carried out by adopting an in situ strategy which uses a molten mixture consisting of La(hfa)3-diglyme and Al(acac)3 precursors. Thermal analyses and in situ FTIR spectra of the gas phase prove that the molten multi-component source possesses suitable stability during vaporization and mass transport processes. Analyses of the LaAlO3 films deposited show that films have smooth surfaces, consist of uniformly distributed plate-like grains (Figure), and are epitaxially grown.

    11. Author Index and Subject Index Chem. Vap. Deposition 3/2004 (page 178)

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200490009