Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Chemical Vapor Deposition

July, 2005

Volume 11, Issue 6-7

Pages 283–338

    1. Editorial: 10 Years of CVD (page 287)

      M. L. Hitchman

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200590014

    2. CVD of Titanium Oxide Thin Films from the Reaction of Tetrakis(dimethylamido)- titanium with Oxygen (pages 289–291)

      J. B. Woods, D. B. Beach, C. L. Nygren and Z.-L. Xue

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200504205

      TiO2 thin films on silicon wafers have been prepared from the reaction of Ti(NMe2)4 with O2 at 250–300 °C by CVD processes. These films, which are carbon free and contain no TiN or TiOxNy species, are amorphous before annealing but crystalline anatase after annealing at 600 °C in air. The average dielectric constant (κ) of the annealed films is 50(5), with an average leakage current of 5(3)×10–5 A cm–2, and breakdown strength of 1.8(0.3) MV cm–1.

    3. Bis[di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamato]CuII: A Volatile Precursor for the Efficient Growth of Cuprous Sulfide Films by MOCVD (pages 291–294)

      M. N. McCain, A. W. Metz, Y. Yang, C. L. Stern and T. J. Marks

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200404200

      The air-stable, highly volatile precursor bis[di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) dithiocarbamato]copper(II) (see Figure) has been fully characterized by single-crystal XRD and thermogravimetric analysis, and shown to be a highly effective single-source precursor for the deposition of high-quality p-type cuprous sulfide films by MOCVD. As-deposited films are phase-pure and polycrystalline, as indicated by XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    4. Metal-Organic CVD of Conductive and Crystalline Hafnium Nitride Films (pages 294–297)

      Y. Kim, A. Baunemann, H. Parala, A. Devi and R. A. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200504204

      HfN films have been deposited on Si, SiO2, and Al2O3 substrates by MOCVD using Hf(NMe2)4 and Me2NNH2 (DMHy) in the deposition temperature range 600–800 °C. The resistivity and morphology of the films strongly depends on the deposition temperature. A cubic polycrystalline and conductive HfN film deposited at 800 °C shows the lowest resistivity, of approximately 1020 μΩ·cm. The HfN film was slightly nitrogen-rich and the film density was 12.9 g cm–3. It was found that DMHy and the high deposition temperature were important factors for the growth of good-quality HfN films.

    5. Deposition of HfO2 Films by Liquid Injection MOCVD Using a New Monomeric Alkoxide Precursor, [Hf(dmop)4] (pages 299–305)

      Y. F. Loo, R. O'Kane, A. C. Jones, H. C. Aspinall, R. J. Potter, P. R. Chalker, J. F. Bickley, S. Taylor and L. M. Smith

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506384

      Thin films of HfO2 have important potential applications in microelectronics. This paper describes the growth of these oxides by liquid injection MOCVD using a new class of alkoxide precursor [Hf-(dmop)4]. The Figure shows the crystal structure of [Hf(dmop)4]. Films were deposited over substrate temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 650 °C, and analysis by XRD shows that films are amorphous at deposition temperatures below 400 °C and adopt a monoclinic (α-HfO2) phase with a fiber texture dependent upon growth temperature at substrate temperatures above 450 °C.

    6. A Multiscale Simulation Approach for the MOCVD of GaN Using a Single-Molecule Precursor in a Vertical Stagnation Flow Reactor (pages 306–316)

      M. Mukinovic, G. Brenner, J. Khanderi, S. Spöllmann, R. A. Fischer, M. Tafipolsky, T. Cadenbach and R. Schmid

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200406354

      A multiscale simulation approach is used to investigate the amount of gas-phase decomposition of the single-molecule precursor BAZIGA to the intermediate GaN3 in a vertical stagnation flow reactor. The rate constant for the effective reaction BAZIGA [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] GaN3 is derived purely from ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Despite the high energy of activation (Ea = 321 KJ/mol) the gas-phase decomposition is complete.

    7. Deposition of Thin Films of SiOxCyH in a Surfatron Microwave Plasma Reactor with Hexamethyldisiloxane as Precursor (pages 317–323)

      A. Walkiewicz-Pietrzykowska, J. Cotrino and A. R. González-Elipe

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506374

      SiOxCyH thin films have been prepared by plasma-enhanced (PE)CVD in a surface wave microwave reactor using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor. Analysis of the plasma suggests that polymerization occurs after adsorption of precursor species on the surface of the growing films. A strong correlation is found between the composition and bonding structure of the thin films and the oxygen/HMDSO ratio in the plasma gas, and it is found that the Auger parameter of the silicon depends on the composition of the films (e.g., 1714.5 for O2/HDMSO=0 and 1712.3 for O2/HDMSO=0.75). This parameter can be taken as a measurement of the polarizability of the films.

    8. MOCVD of YF3 and Y1–xErxF3 Thin Films from Precursors Synthesized In Situ (pages 324–329)

      G. G. Condorelli, G. Anastasi and I. L. Fragalà

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200406359

      Anhydrous Y(hfac)3 and Er-(hfac)3 precursors have been obtained in situ in an MOCVD reactor by vapor-solid reaction between Hhfac and powders of suitable Y2O3 / Er2O3. YF3 and Y1–xErxF3 (x ≈ 0.2) have been, therefore, deposited under Ar/O2 environments. The deposition involves the break-down of the metal–ligand bond, thus leading to free Hhfac ligands and fluorinated ketones (see Figure).

    9. Laser-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Boron Nitride Thin Films (pages 330–337)

      J. Olander, L. M. Ottosson, P. Heszler, J.-O. Carlsson and K. M. E. Larsson

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506365

      Boron nitride thin films have been grown by laser-assisted (L-) and conventional ALD at temperatures in the interval 250–750 °C. Both the NH3 and BBr3 precursors were appreciably dissociated by the ArF excimer laser, and the growth rate was increased by 100% for the LALD process (in comparison to ALD) and for temperatures up to 600 °C. The films consisted of hydrogen-terminated turbostratic BN grains. H2 was theoretically observed to energetically compete with the BBrX and NHX (X = 0–2) precursors in the adsorption to the hBN(100) edges. The fresh films were stoichiometric with respect to B and N and contained low degrees of contamination, but oxidized easily in air.