Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Chemical Vapor Deposition

Special Issue: Silicon Carbide CVD for Electronic Device Applications

September, 2006

Volume 12, Issue 8-9

Pages 457–569

Issue edited by: Peter Wellmann, Michel Pons

  1. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Contents
    3. Editorial
    4. Review
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Contents
    3. Editorial
    4. Review
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Contents
    3. Editorial
    4. Review
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
    1. Development of Multiwafer Warm-Wall Planetary VPE Reactors for SiC Device Production (pages 465–473)

      A. A. Burk

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200500028

      The development of high-temperature (1600 °C) SiC vapor phase epitaxial (VPE) growth is reviewed from its origins in homemade quartz reactors growing upon tiny, several millimeters per side SiC Lely crystals, to the latest results achieved in high-throughput, 8 × 100 mm, warm-wall planetary SiC VPE reactors (see figure).

  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Contents
    3. Editorial
    4. Review
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
    1. Thick Silicon Carbide Homoepitaxial Layers Grown by CVD Techniques (pages 475–482)

      A. Henry, J. ul Hassan, J. P. Bergman, C. Hallin and E. Janzén

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606470

      The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is described for two types (horizontal and vertical) of hot-wall CVD (HWCVD) reactors. In both cases the advantages of the HWCVD are the better cracking efficiency of the precursor gases and better temperature distribution, together with low input power. Characterizations of some examples of grown, thick SiC layers are given.

    2. Strain Tailoring in 3C-SiC Heteroepitaxial Layers Grown on Si(100) (pages 483–488)

      G. Ferro, T. Chassagne, A. Leycuras, F. Cauwet and Y. Monteil

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506461

      In this article, several attempts to reduce the final curvature after epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC layers on Si substrate are reviewed. The two main directions studied are: 1) the modification of the carbonization step and 2) the use of other Si based substrates, namely Si on insulator and bulk SiGe. All approaches provoke a significant reduction of the strain in the deposited 3C-SiC layers.

    3. Homoepitaxial Growth on a 4H-SiC C-Face Substrate (pages 489–494)

      K. Kojima, S. Kuroda, H. Okumura and K. Arai

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506463

      The C-face has major advantages for 4H-SiC homoepitaxial growth on low-off-angle substrates. A specular surface morphology without a bunched step structure can be obtained on a complete 2 inch C-face substrate (see figure) with a vicinal off-angle of 0.5°.

    4. Effect of Reduced Pressure on 3C-SiC Heteroepitaxial Growth on Si by CVD (pages 495–501)

      Y. Ishida, T. Takahashi, H. Okumura, K. Arai and S. Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506464

      The effect of reduced pressure on 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial growth on Si (001) faces has been investigated. APCVD and LPCVD differ in growth mode, and the crystallinity of epilayers is improved by LPCVD. The mechanism of the improvement is discussed in terms of the difference in growth mode. Moreover, the origin of the difference in growth mode is suggested from simulation results.

    5. Reducing Planar Defects in 3C–SiC (pages 502–508)

      H. Nagasawa, K. Yagi, T. Kawahara and N. Hatta

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506466

      3C-SiC epitaxial growth on undulant Si results in reduction of anti-phase boundaries via step-flow at each slope of an undulation. Simultaneously, stacking faults within an exposed C-face on the (001) face are eliminated via self-vanishing. Finally, SFs with an exposed Si-face on the (001) face are reduced by a method involving homoepitaxial growth, called switch-back epitaxy.

    6. 4H SiC Epitaxial Growth with Chlorine Addition (pages 509–515)

      F. La Via, G. Galvagno, G. Foti, M. Mauceri, S. Leone, G. Pistone, G. Abbondanza, A. Veneroni, M. Masi, G. L. Valente and D. Crippa

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506465

      The growth rate of 4H-SiC epitaxial layer has been increased up to 112 μm h–1 with the introduction of HCl in the deposition chamber. The effects of different deposition parameters on the epitaxial growth process have been described. This process may be promising for production of high-power devices with a breakdown voltage of 10 kV.

    7. Growth and Doping Modeling of SiC-CVD in a Horizontal Hot-Wall Reactor (pages 516–522)

      S. Nishizawa and M. Pons

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606469

      The SiC epitaxial growth and doping on both Si-terminated and C-terminated surfaces in a horizontal hot-wall reactor are analyzed. The role of the actual surface mass fluxes of both Si-containing and C-containing species and their ratio is investigated. The doping level and the surface morphology are explained by the actual C/Si ratio and the mass fluxes at the growing surface, respectively.

    8. Fabrication and Characterization of 3C-SiC-Based MOSFETs (pages 523–530)

      A. Schöner, M. Krieger, G. Pensl, M. Abe and H. Nagasawa

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606467

      The potential of 3C-SiC for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is demonstrated. Lateral and vertical 3C-SiC MOSFET devices are fabricated and the device parameters are measured. The density of interface traps is determined by admittance spectroscopy and discussed in detail. Hall-effect measurements are conducted in the channel of MOS Hall-bar structures resulting in the Hall mobility and the free electron areal density.

    9. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas (pages 531–540)

      P. G. Neudeck, A. J. Trunek, D. J. Spry, J. A. Powell, H. Du, M. Skowronski, X. R. Huang and M. Dudley

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200506460

      By properly nucleating 3C–SiC on top of a patterned array of (0001) 4H–SiC mesas with surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps, growth of 3C–SiC mesa heterofilms free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. Detailed characterization, including AFM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, indicates that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial films.

    10. Thermodynamic Aspects of the Growth of SiC Single Crystals using the CF-PVT Process (pages 541–548)

      D. Chaussende, E. Blanquet, F. Baillet, M. Ucar and G. Chichignoud

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606471

      A detailed investigation of the continuous-feed physical vapor transport process thermochemistry is given. We demonstrate that the strong chemical interaction that exists between the chemical vapor deposition and the physical vapor transport zones demonstrates the necessity of considering the process as a whole and not as two separate zones.

    11. Application of LTPL Investigation Methods to CVD-Grown SiC (pages 549–556)

      J. Camassel, S. Juillaguet, M. Zielinski and C. Balloud

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606472

      The few theoretical equations that rule all near-equilibrium recombination processes in semiconductors with direct or indirect bandgaps are reviewed in detail. Their physical significance in the case of 4H and 3C-SiC for nitrogen and aluminum doping is discussed. Performing a systematic comparison of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra with secondary ions mass spectroscopy and/or capacitance-voltage measurements, one can show that reasonable values for the doping level can be obtained from optical measurements.

    12. Growth of Silicon Carbide Bulk Crystals with a Modified Physical Vapor Transport Technique (pages 557–561)

      R. Müller, U. Künecke, D. Queren, S. A. Sakwe and P. Wellmann

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606474

      In this paper, we review the development of the M-PVT (modified physical vapor transport) method for SiC bulk crystal growth. For this technique, elements from CVD are combined with the conventional PVT method to achieve a better process and especially dopant control. Doping experiments resulted in phosphorous concentrations up to 1.5 × 1018 cm–3 and aluminum concentrations up to 1.3 × 1020 cm–3.

    13. Gas-Phase and Surface Kinetics of Epitaxial Silicon Carbide Growth Involving Chlorine-Containing Species (pages 562–568)

      A. Veneroni and M. Masi

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606468

      A detailed deposition mechanism for epitaxial SiC deposition from SiH4/SiHxCl4–x/C3H8/C2H2/HCl in H2 as the carrier gas is presented. It involves 153 gas-phase and 76 surface reactions among 47 gas phases and 9 surface species. The mechanism, once embedded in a simplified reactor model, was satisfactorily tested against experimental growth rate data.

  5. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Contents
    3. Editorial
    4. Review
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index