Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 4‐6

June, 2011

Volume 17, Issue 4-6

Pages 69–172

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
    1. Masthead

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201190005

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
    1. Fluorine-Mediated Crystallization of Silicon in Plasma-Enhanced CVD (pages 73–75)

      Cheolhyun Lim, Takafumi Yanagida and Junichi Hanna

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201004294

      Fluorine mediated crystal silicon thin films in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were grown using a Si2H6 and SiF4 gas mixture without an intentional hydrogen dilution. The crystal growth took place at the temperatures above 400°C, and both crystallinity and growth rate were increased with an addition of SiF4. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that addition of SiF4 changes the major precursor from SiH3 to SiHnFm (n+m≤3), and provides an abundant atomic fluorine ambient. These results indicate that contribution of atomic hydrogen is not indispensable for the crystallization, and atomic fluorine can be an alternative to atomic hydrogen.

    2. Non-Halogen Liquid Precursor Route to Parylene (pages 76–79)

      Jay J. Senkevich

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201104304

      A novel set of liquid-phase non-halogenated precursors is presented that yield the chemical vapor deposited parylene polymers. The syntheses of these precursors are simple, scalable, inexpensive and they are easily purified. The parylene polymers deposited from these precursors are compared to the parylene deposited from [2.2] paracylophane, also known as the Gorham process, with little difference.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
    1. MOCVD Fabrication of Magnesium Fluoride Films: Effects of Deposition Parameters on Structure and Morphology (pages 80–87)

      Maria E. Fragalà, Roberta G. Toro, Salvatore Privitera and Graziella Malandrino

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106849

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The structural and morphological characteristics of the MgF2 films deposited from the single source Mg(hfa)2·2H2O·2diglyme have been correlated to the deposition conditions.

    2. Growth and Optical Properties of Nonpolar (equation image) Zn1-xCoxO Epitaxial Film on a γ-LiAlO2 Substrate (pages 88–92)

      Jih-Jen Wu, Sian-Jhang Lin, Wan-Hsien Lin, Mitch M.C. Chou, Liuwen Chang, Ten-Hsing Hwang, Chia-Hao Chuang and Chun-Wei Chen

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006871

      Nonpolar (equation image) Zn1-xCoxO films were grown on γ-LiAlO2 (100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Co atoms become incorporated into the ZnO film via substitution for Zn when x≤0.15. The epitaxial relationships between the nonpolar Zn1-xCoxO film and γ-LiAlO2 substrate are [0001]ZnCoO || [010]LAO and [equation image]ZnCoO|| [100]LAO. A decrease of the optical band gap of the nonpolar Zn1-xCoxO film with increasing Co content was observed in absorption measurements.

    3. Effect of Humidity and UV Assistance on the Properties of Erbium Doped Yttrium Oxide Films Prepared by Aerosol-MOCVD (pages 93–97)

      Rached Salhi, Herve Roussel, Patrick Chaudouët, Ramzi Maalej, Mohieddine Fourati and Jean-Luc Deschanvres

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006877

      Erbium-doped yttrium oxide films were prepared from yttrium acetylacetonate (Y(C5H7O2)3) and erbium (III) Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) (Er(TMHD)3) under standard conditions by UV-aerosol-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, using air with controlled humidity as carrier gas. The structure and deposition rate were optimized by studying three experimental parameters: substrate temperature, relative humidity (RH) of carrier gas and UV-assistance. Taking all these parameters effect under consideration, the maximum deposition rates were reached under low humidity air and with UV-assistance. Nevertheless, as-deposited Er:Y2O3 films crystallized in the Y2O3 cubic structure and present a very low organic contamination when depositions take place under high air humidity and with UV-assistance. The refractive index of yttrium oxide films under these conditions were relatively high, reaching 1.86 when deposited at 410°C.

    4. Acetylene-Enhanced Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Ceramic Microparticles for Multi-Scale Hybrid Structures (pages 98–106)

      Delong He and Jinbo Bai

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006878

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In-situ preparation of multifunctional hybrids consisting of carbon nanotubes and spherical alumina microparticles is realized by chemical vapor deposition using acetylene and xylene two-phase carbon sources. The addition of acetylene considerably accelerates the nanotube growth on the microparticles at relatively low temperatures. The formed hybrids are expected to control CNT distribution and orientation in polymer matrices and therefore to develop advanced multifunctional composites with enhanced properties.

    5. Development of Crystallographic Texture and In-Grain Misorientation in CVD-Produced Single and Polycrystalline Diamond (pages 107–113)

      Dipti Ranjan Mohapatra, Lokendra Jain, Padmnabh Rai, Kiran Shankar Hazra, Indradev Samajdar and Devi Shanker Misra

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006880

      Single and polycrystalline diamond films of different film thickness were synthesized by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) technique. Extensive electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to study the micro-textural characteristics. With increased film thickness, texturing improved and in-grain misorientation dropped. The observed microtexturing in single crystal diamond may be defect induced.

    6. Nucleation and Chemical Transformation of RuO2 Films Grown on (100) Si Substrates by Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 114–122)

      Amelie Salaün, Simon B. Newcomb, Ian M. Povey, Mathieu Salaün, Lynette Keeney, Aileen O'Mahony and Martyn E. Pemble

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006882

      RuO2 thin films were grown using atomic layer deposition from Ru(EtCp)2 and O2, followed by an annealing at different temperatures and atmospheres to investigate the transformation from RuO2 to Ru. No significant changes in composition or morphology were observed following annealing in nitrogen for 4hours at either 500 or 700°C. However, the oxide to metal reduction was obtained after annealing in forming gas at 420°C for 5minutes.

    7. TPD-MS and IR Studies of Cr(acac)3 Binding Upon CVD at Silica and Alumina Surfaces (pages 123–127)

      Lyudmyla Davydenko, Boris Mischanchuk, Valery Pokrovskiy, Igor Babich and Yuri Plyuto

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006885

      The mechanism of CVD of Cr(acac)3 molecules at active sites of the surface of silica and alumina has been studied by IR spectroscopy and TPD-MS. The surface hydroxyl groups are responsible for binding of Cr(acac)3 molecules only in the case of silica support. In contrast, the binding of Cr(acac)3 molecules at the alumina surface can be due to electron donor-acceptor interaction of acetylacetonate ligands with Al3+ sites.

    8. The Atomic Layer Deposition of SrB2O4 Films Using the Thermally Stable Precursor Bis(tris(pyrazolyl)borate)strontium (pages 128–134)

      Mark J. Saly, Frans Munnik and Charles H. Winter

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006890

      The atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of SrB2O4 films is demonstrated using SrTp2 and water. Self-limited ALD growth was established at 350°C with SrTp2 and water pulse lengths of ≥2.0s and ≥0.3s, respectively. An ALD window was observed from 300 to 375°C, in which the growth rate was 0.47Å/cycle.

    9. Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Deposited on High Aspect Ratio Supports by Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 135–140)

      Madeleine Diskus, Ola Nilsen and Helmer Fjellvåg

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006891

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin films of Co3O4 were obtained by ALD using CoCp2 as precursor up to a deposition temperature of 285°C. EDX mapping of the films deposited on high aspect ratio supports proves the very existence of cobalt inside the pores with a homogeneous deposition of cobalt oxide on the 5µm upper part of the porous structure.

    10. Monomer Crystallization During Vapor-Deposition Polymerization (pages 141–148)

      Alexander G. Papastrat, Thach Chu and Mitchell Anthamatten

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006893

      The simultaneous growth and nucleation of monomer crystallites during vapor deposition polymerization of poly(amic acid) is reported. Experiments were conducted using monomer pairs of different reactivity, and results indicate that the more reactive monomer pairs are less prone to forming crystallites. High surface mobility promotes polymerization and may explains other phenomena observed in vapor deposited films.

    11. Immobilization of Apoferritin-Templated Seeds for Si Nanowire Growth (pages 149–154)

      Zhang Zhang, Lianbing Zhang, Stephan Senz and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006896

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Small Au nanoparticles with a confined size were synthesized exclusively inside the protein cavity of apoferritin (Au-apo). A modified immobilization process was used to decorate a large area of a Si substrate with monodisperse Au-apo. After removing the protein, the immobilized Au nanoparticles acted as catalysts for a subsequent sub-10nm diameter silicon nanowire (SiNW) growth by chemical vapor deposition.

    12. MOCVD of ZnO Films from Bis(Ketoiminato)Zn(II) Precursors: Structure, Morphology and Optical Properties (pages 155–161)

      Daniela Bekermann, Arne Ludwig, Teodor Toader, Chiara Maccato, Davide Barreca, Alberto Gasparotto, Claudia Bock, Andreas D. Wieck, Ulrich Kunze, Eugenio Tondello, Roland A. Fischer and Anjana Devi

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201006898

      Zinc oxide thin films have been successfully grown by MOCVD from two related bis(ketoiminato) zinc precursors. Depositions were performed on Si(100) and borosilicate glass substrates under N2+O2 atmospheres at temperatures between 400 and 700°C, yielding pure and stoichiometric ZnO thin films, with structure and morphology directly dependent on the growth conditions. The optical properties of the as-grown ZnO layers were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

    13. Highly Dispersed MoO3/Al2O3 Shell-Core Composites Synthesized by CVD of Mo(CO)6 under Atmospheric Pressure (pages 162–169)

      Guojun Shi, Thomas Franzke, Wei Xia, Miguel D. Sanchez and Martin Muhler

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106909

      MoO3/γ-Al2O3 samples synthesized by CVD of Mo(CO)6 under atmospheric pressure in a horizontal, rotating, hot-wall reactor exhibited excellent porosities and a high degree of Mo dispersion even at high Mo loadings up to 17wt.-%, which was confirmed by N2 physisorption, XRD, LRS, and TEM. The XPS analysis showed that exclusively MoVI species were present.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Full Papers
    7. Research News
    1. Stability of CVD-Produced Polymer Thin Films (pages 170–172)

      Jay J. Senkevich

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201104001

      An important consideration for the use of polymer thin films is their stability at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. Research news is presented to help polymer researchers characterize this stability. For the news presented here a stable polymer poly(α,α′-dimethyl-p-xylylene) is compared to an un-stable polymer poly(hydroxyl-p-xylylene), which contains a radical trap preventing a high polymer from being deposited.

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