Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 1‐3

March 2012

Volume 18, Issue 1-3

Pages 3–82

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communication
    6. Full Papers
  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communication
    6. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Chem. Vap. Deposition 1–2–3/2012)

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201290002

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communication
    6. Full Papers
  4. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communication
    6. Full Papers
    1. Chemical Vapor Synthesis and Physico-chemical Properties of V2O5 Nanoparticles (pages 6–9)

      Hoang Anh Le, Sungmin Chin, Eunseuk Park, Gwinam Bae and Jongsoo Jurng

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201104307

      Vanadium oxides nanoparticles, mainly V2O5, were synthesized by a chemical vapor process using vanadium (V) oxytriethoxide as the precursor. The material synthesis temperatures were varied from 500 to 1300 °C at 200 °C intervals. The physico-chemical properties of vanadium oxides were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET surface area, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communication
    6. Full Papers
    1. Gas-Pulsed CVD for Film Growth in the Cu[BOND]Ni[BOND]N System (pages 10–16)

      Erik Lindahl, Mikael Ottosson and Jan-Otto Carlsson

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106919

      Alternate gas pulses of the precursor mixtures Cu(hfac)2/NH3 and Ni(thd)2/NH3, separated by intermittent ammonia pulses, were employed for CVD of a new ternary solid solution, Cu3-xNix+yN, at 260 °C. The metal composition could be varied from 0 to 80% Ni by varying the duration of the gas pulses. The paper illustrates an alternative way to grow multi-component films and nanocomposites by combining developed CVD processes of binary compounds in a repeated and sequential way.

    2. Remote Plasma-Assisted CVD Growth of Carbon Nanotubes in an Optimised Rapid Thermal Reactor (pages 17–21)

      Nikos Peltekis, Marcel Mausser, Shishir Kumar, Niall McEvoy, Chris Murray and Georg S. Duesberg

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106925

      The growth of both MWNTs and SWNTs by remote plasma assisted CVD in a purpose built rapid ramping reactor is presented. The reactor allows for highly reproducible growth, with uniform temperature and plasma conditions and fast sample exchange. The SWNTs grown are of a very high purity and have a repeatable distribution of small diameters. Further, growth of dense aligned MWNT forests on conducting substrates is demonstrated.

    3. Atomic Layer Deposition-Modified Ordered Mesoporous Silica Membranes (pages 22–26)

      David E. Cassidy and William J. DeSisto

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106931

      Ordered mesoporous silica membranes of 4 nm nominal pore diameter were modified by aluminum oxide ALD. Detailed characterization at different stages of modification indicated that deposition efficiency reduced as pore size decreased. ALD is a promising tool for membrane synthesis.

    4. Atomic Layer Deposition of HfO2 Thin Films Employing a Heteroleptic Hafnium Precursor (pages 27–35)

      Ke Xu, Andrian P. Milanov, Harish Parala, Christian Wenger, Canan Baristiran-Kaynak, Kaoutar Lakribssi, Teodor Toader, Claudia Bock, Detlef Rogalla, Hans-Werner Becker, Ulrich Kunze and Anjana Devi

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106934

      The application of a heteroleptic hafnium amide-guanidinate precursor [Hf(NMe2)2(NMe2-Guan)2] for the deposition of HfO2 thin films via a water assisted ALD process has been demonstrated for the first time. This compound showed self-limiting ALD type growth characteristics with the growth rates as high as 1.0–1.2 Å per cycle in the temperature range 100–225 °C. Typical ALD characteristics such as saturation behavior and linear dependence on the film thickness as a function of number of cycles were verified at different temperatures within the ALD window. The as-deposited HfO2 films were characterized by AFM, SEM, RBS, XPS and electrical measurements.

    5. Effect of SiC-Impurity Layer and Growth Temperature on MgB2 Superconducting Tapes Fabricated by HPCVD (pages 36–40)

      Mahipal Ranot, Won Kyung Seong, Soon-Gil Jung, Won Nam Kang, Jinho Joo, Chan-Joong Kim, Byung-Hyuk Jun and Sangjun Oh

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106935

      We report on the effect of SiC-impurity layer as well as growth temperature on the superconducting properties of MgB2 tapes. Firstly, SiC-impurity layers were grown on Cu (001) tapes by pulsed laser deposition system. Subsequently, MgB2 films were fabricated on SiC/Cu tapes over a wide temperature range of 460–600 °C by using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition system. All the prepared tapes were characterized by XRD, SEM, resistivity and magnetization measurements. The MgB2/SiC/Cu tapes showed improved flux pinning and enhanced critical current density (Jc) than the MgB2/Cu tapes. Our results demonstrate that HPCVD is a promising technique to fabricate thick MgB2 superconducting tapes with high Jc values for large scale applications.

    6. Initial Stage Growth during Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Cobalt (pages 41–45)

      Han-Bo-Ram Lee, Yong Jun Park, Sunggi Baik and Hyungjun Kim

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106937

      The initial growth of Co thin films during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition by using Co metal organic precursor and NH3 plasma counter reactant was investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation X-ray reflectivity. The growth behavior of Co was explained by island growth of Co under substrate-inhibited growth mode.

    7. Self-Limited Reaction-Diffusion in Nanostructured Substrates: Surface Coverage Dynamics and Analytic Approximations to ALD Saturation Times (pages 46–52)

      Angel Yanguas-Gil and Jeffrey W. Elam

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106938

      We present a general model based on a time-dependent reaction-diffusion equation to determine the dosing times and coverage profiles in structured substrates during atomic layer deposition (ALD). Using the assumptions of molecular flow in a circular pore, we derive a general, analytic equation to predict saturation exposure times. To demonstrate the utility of our model, we derive additional expressions incorporating a precursor loss term relevant to predicting exposure times during ozone-based ALD. Because our model makes no assumptions about the diffusion coefficient or sample geometry, it can easily be adapted to describe a broad range of ALD systems.

    8. Application of Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown on Aluminum Foils as Electric Double Layer Capacitor Electrodes (pages 53–60)

      Vyacheslav O. Khavrus, Mathias Weiser, Marco Fritsch, Raghunandan Ummethala, Maria Grazia Salvaggio, Michael Schneider, Mihails Kusnezoff and Albrecht Leonhardt

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106942

      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are directly grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on Al foils with different surface morphologies to make hybrid electrodes for electric double-layer capacitors. It is found that surface topography of the Al foil is a governing factor for the growth of CNTs, their alignment and adhesion to the current collector. Prepared electrodes achieve a specific capacitance up to 11.2 F/g.

    9. NiO Thin Films Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition using Ni(dmamb)2 and Ozone as Precursors (pages 61–69)

      Peter Antony Premkumar, Michael Toeller, Christoph Adelmann, Johan Meersschaut, Alexis Franquet, Olivier Richard, Hilde Tielens, Bert Brijs, Alain Moussa, Thierry Conard, Hugo Bender, Marc Schaekers, Jorge A. Kittl, Malgorzata Jurczak and Sven Van Elshocht

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106949

      NiO thin films synthesized using Ni(dmamb)2 and ozone precursors were studied for ALD characteristics and film properties were evaluated. The O3 and Ni(dmamb)2 half cycle studies showed saturation for the former and slow non-saturation for the latter reactant. The films are polycrystalline and exhibit uniform and smooth morphology across the wafer with low impurity level. Comparable film qualities were obtained also by CVD using O2 as the oxidizer for Ni(dmamb)2.

    10. Metallic Tungsten Nanostructures and Highly Nanostructured Thin Films by Deposition of Tungsten Oxide and Subsequent Reduction in a Single Hot-Wire CVD Process (pages 70–75)

      Peter-Paul R. M. L. Harks, Z. Silvester Houweling, Michiel de Jong, Yinghuan Kuang, John W. Geus and Ruud E. I. Schropp

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106955

      In a single deposition process, tungsten oxide nanostructures and nanostructured thin films were deposited by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition and subsequently reduced by atomic hydrogen at a temperature of 700 ± 100 °C. Metallic tungsten nanostructures and nanostructured thin films of varying morphology can thus controllable be obtained by this method. The metallic structures were, amongst others, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

    11. Control of Heteroepitaxial Growth of CaCu3Ti4O12 Films on SrTiO3 Substrates by MOCVD (pages 76–82)

      Maria Rita Catalano, Graziella Malandrino, Roberta G. Toro and Raffaella Lo Nigro

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.201106960

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films have been successfully deposited by MOCVD technique on SrTiO3(001) substrates using an interesting approach based on a molten multi-component precursor source. It has been found that also in case of a relatively large lattice mismatch (∼ 5%), the epitaxial growth can be achieved by a careful optimization of deposition parameters. The kinetic and thermodynamical issues involved in the MOCVD epitaxial growth have been evaluated.

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