Chemical Vapor Deposition

Cover image for Chemical Vapor Deposition

December, 2003

Volume 9, Issue 6

Pages 291–345

    1. Contents: Chem. Vap. Deposition 6/2003 (pages 291–292)

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200390016

    2. Mononuclear Mixed β-Ketoester-alkoxide Compound of Titanium as a Promising Precursor for Low-Temperature MOCVD of TiO2 Thin Films (pages 295–298)

      R. Bhakta, F. Hipler, A. Devi, S. Regnery, P. Ehrhart and R. Waser

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304151

      A monomeric titanium complex suitable for liquid-injection MOCVD applications is synthesized and its molecular structure is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Ti(OiPr)2-(tbaoac)2] (see Figure), (tbaoac) = tertiarybutylacetoacetonate), is a volatile alkoxide-(beta)diketonate precursor that has a low melting point and very good solubility in common organic solvents.

    3. Pyrolytic Laser CVD of Boron Nitride and Molybdenum (pages 298–301)

      C. Duty, R. Johnson, S. Bondi and W.J. Lackey

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304159

      The first pyrolytic laser deposition of boron nitride and molybdenum is reported. The deposition from borazine and molybdenum pentachloride on variety of substrates is demonstrated including graphite, alumina and tungsten. The deposition of boron nitride on graphite produces very short fibers while its deposition on alumina results in uniform shallow dots. Molybdenum layers deposited on graphite at temperatures above 1150 °C are more fibrous and porous whereas films deposited at lower temperatures are flat and flaky. The morphology of each material has also been related to the operating parameters of the gas-jet LCVD system.

    4. Growth of IrO2 Films and Nanorods by Means of CVD: An Example of Compositional and Morphological Control of Nanostructures (pages 301–305)

      R.-S. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, Y.-S. Huang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Chi, C.-S. Liu, K.-K. Tiong and A.J. Carty

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304153

      Conductive iridium oxide films or one-dimensional nanorods are deposited using (MeCp)Ir(COD). A systematic investigation is carried out, showing a close correlation of morphology with deposition pressure and oxygen partial pressure. Of particular interest, are the vertically aligned IrO2 nanorods (see Figure) deposited at 350 °C in 30 torr of oxygen. The surface morphology and structural composition of the materials are confirmed.

    5. Copper Penetration into Porous Ultra-low-κ Methyl Silsesquioxane during Selective CVD (pages 305–307)

      C. Jezewski, W.A. Lanford, J.J. Senkevich, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu and C. Jin

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200304155

      Copper is deposited on nanoporous methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ) from Cu(thd)2. The process, which is carried out at 217 °C, well below the thermal decomposition temperature of Cu(thd)2, and in the presence of H2, results in the penetration and accumulation of copper at the interface between the dielectric layer and the substrate. This is demonstrated by both SEM and RBS, which show that significant selective growth takes place inside the dielectric and there is still no detectable deposition on the surface even after 100 nm growth is achieved.

    6. Growth of Hafnium Dioxide Thin Films by Liquid-Injection MOCVD Using Alkylamide and Hydroxylamide Precursors (pages 309–314)

      P.A. Williams, A.C. Jones, N.L. Tobin, P.R. Chalker, S. Taylor, P.A. Marshall, J.F. Bickley, L.M. Smith, H.O. Davies and G.W. Critchlow

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306271

      The deposition of HfO2 by liquid injection MOCVD is achieved using [Hf(NMe2)4] (see Figure) and [Hf-(ONEt2)4]. The first precursor deposits oxide at lower growth temperatures and over a wider temperature range than with the second precursor; the deposited films exhibit well defined columnar crystalline structures. Oxides grown from [Hf-(ONEt2)4] are smoother with little evidence of columnar structure.

    7. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium Dioxide Films Using Hafnium Bis(2-butanolate)bis(1-methoxy-2-methyl-2-propanolate) and Water (pages 315–320)

      K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, A.C. Jones and J.L. Roberts

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306263

      HfO2 films are grown by ALD from a mononuclear Hf(OBut)2-(OCMe2CH2OMe)2 complex and H2O at 273–400 °C on borosilicate glass and Si(100) substrates. The growth of the densest films is achieved at temperatures above 300 °C with refractive index between 1.95 and 2.00 and O/Hf ratio of 2.0 ± 0.2. Films deposited at temperatures above 325 °C are found to be monoclinic, whereas at lower temperatures the deposited films are amorphous. The effective permittivities of the dielectrics in a Al/HfO2/p-Si(100) capacitor structure is found to vary between 12 and 14, slightly increasing with growth temperature.

    8. Pt Thin Film Collectors Prepared by Liquid-Delivery Metal–Organic CVD Using Pt(C2H5C5H4)(CH3)3 for LiCoO2 Thin Film Cathodes (pages 321–325)

      W.-G. Choi, E.-S. Choi and S.-G. Yoon

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306268

      Platinum thin film collectors are deposited by liquid delivery MOCVD onto p-Si(100) planar and trench substrates for microbatteries using Pt(C2H5C5H4)-(CH3)3. The resistivity and root mean square roughness of Pt thin films with (111) preferred orientation increases with both increasing deposition temperature and pressure. Films deposited at 350 °C show the lowest resistivity, roughness, and the highest step coverage of 57 % in a trench structure (see Figure).

    9. Growth Per Cycle in Atomic Layer Deposition: Real Application Examplesof a Theoretical Model (pages 327–332)

      R.L. Puurunen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306266

      Practical examples are presented to investigate the reaction mechanisms of real ALD processes by applying a theoretical model published recently. Three processes of different classes of compound reactants are selected for the study; namely, the trimethylaluminum/water process to grow aluminum oxide, the yttrium 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate/ozone system to produce yttrium oxide, and the titanium tetrachloride/water process to grow titanium oxide. Results obtained by applying the model are found to be in general agreement with theoretical models of the reaction mechanisms.

    10. Polymorphous Silicon Films Deposited at 27.12 MHz (pages 333–337)

      R. Martins, H. Águas, I. Ferreira, E. Fortunato, S. Lebib, P. Roca i Cabarrocas and L. Guimarães

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200306261

      A new type of polymorphous-Si:H is successfully produced for the first time using a 27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced CVD process. The study shows that monitoring the plasma impedance is a key element in this process which produces growth rates as high as 0.31 nm s-1. Results from spectroscopic ellipsometry and exodiffusion data indicate that the polymorphous silicon films deposited at 27.12 MHz are much denser than those produced at 13.56 MHz. FTIR data reveal low SiH2 contents and a typical peak at 2030 cm–1 is missing, indicating that the deposited polymorphous silicon film structure is different from the films grown at 13.56 MHz.

    11. Author Index Chem. Vap. Deposition 2003, Vol. 6 (page 341)

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200390018