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LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Nicholson J, Kidd P, Mandy F, Livnat D, Kagan J. Three-color supplement to the NIAID DAIDS guideline for flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Cytometry 1996; 26: 227230.
  • 2
    Nicholson JKA, Mandy FF. Immunophenotyping in HIV infection. In: StewartCC, NicholsonJKA, editors. Immunophenotyping. New York: Wiley-Liss; 2000. p 261289.
  • 3
    Nicholson JKA, Jones BM, Hubbard M. CD4 T-lymphocyte determinations on whole blood specimens using a single-tube three-color assay. Cytometry 1993; 14: 685689.
  • 4
    Gelman R, Wilkening C. Analyses of quality assessment studies using CD45 for gating lymphocytes for CD3+4+%. Cytometry 2000; 42: 14.
  • 5
    Schnizlein-Bick CT, Spritzler J, Wilkening CL, Nicholson JKA, O'Gorman MRG, Site Investigators, The NIAID DAIDS New Technologies Evaluation Group. Evaluation of TruCount absolute-count tubes for determining CD4 and CD8 cell numbers in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 336343.
  • 6
    Reimann K, O'Gorman MRG, Spritzler J, Wilkening CL, Sabath DE, Helm K, Campbell DE, The NIAID DAIDS New Technologies Evaluation Group. Multisite comparison of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counting by single- versus multiple-platform methodologies: evaluation of Beckman Coulter Flow-Count fluorospheres and the tetraONE system. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 344351.
  • 7
    Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), 42 CRF Part 493. Fed Register 1992; 57: 71377185.
  • 8
    Hu P-F, Hultin LE, Hultin P, Hausner MA, Hirji K, Jewett A, Bonavida B, Detels R, Giorgi JV. Natural killer cell immunodeficiency in HIV disease is manifest by profoundly decreased numbers of CD16+CD56+ cells and expansion of a population of CD16dimCD56- cells with low lytic activity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1995; 10: 331340.
  • 9
    Lanier LL, Le AM, Civin CI, Loken MR, Phillips JH. The relationship of CD16 (Leu-11) and Leu-19 (NKH-1) antigen expression on human peripheral blood NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Immunol 1986; 136: 44804486.
  • 10
    Mandy FF, Bergeron M, Minkus T. Principles of flow cytometry. Transfus Sci 1995; 16: 303314.
  • 11
    Bergeron M, Nicholson JKA, Phaneuf S, Bradley A, Mandy F. The selection of lymphocyte gating protocol has impact on the temporal robustness of the T-cell subset values: how to take advantage of 4-color flow cytometers. Cytometry (submitted).
  • 12
    Giorgi JV, Cheng H-L, Margolick JB, Bauer KD, Ferbas J, Waxdal M, Schmid I, Hultin LE, Jackson AL, Park L, Taylor JMG, and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Group: Quality control in the flow cytometric measurement of lymphocyte subsets: the multicenter AIDS cohort study experience. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1990; 55: 173186.
  • 13
    Calvelli T, Denny TN, Paxton H, Gelman R, Kagan J. Guideline for flow cytometric immunophenotyping: a report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS. Cytometry 1993; 14: 702715.
  • 14
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997 revised guidelines for performing CD4+ T-cell determinations in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). MMWR 1997; 46(RR-2): 129.
  • 15
    Mandy FF, Bergeron M, Recktenwald D, Izaguirre CA. A simultaneous three-color T-cell subsets analysis with single laser flow cytometers using T cell gating protocol. J Immunol Methods 1992; 156: 151162.
  • 16
    O'Gorman MRG, Nicholson JKA. Adoption of single-platform technologies for enumeration of absolute T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 333335.
  • 17
    Brando B, Barnett D, Janossy G, Mandy F, Autran B, Rothe G, Scarpati B, D'Avanzo G, D'Hautcourt JL, Lenkei R, Schmitz G, Kunkl A, Chianese R, Papa S, Gratama JW for the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis (EWGCCA). Cytofluorometric methods for assessing absolute numbers of cell subsets in blood. Cytometry 2000; 42: 327346.
  • 18
    Connelly MC, Knight M, Giorgi JV, Kagan J, Landay AL, Parker JW, Page E, Spino C, Wilkening C, Mercolino TJ. Standardization of absolute CD4+ lymphocyte counts across laboratories: an evaluation of the Ortho CytoronAbsolute flow cytometry system on normal donors. Cytometry 1995; 22: 200210.
  • 19
    Taylor JM, Fahey JL, Detels R, Giorgi JV. CD4 percentage, CD4 number, and CD4:CD8 ratio in HIV infection: which to choose and how to use. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989; 2: 114124.
  • 20
    Turner BJ, Hecht FM, Ismail RB. CD4+ T lymphocyte measure in the treatment of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. A review for clinical practitioners. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 15611573.
  • 21
    Raszka WV Jr, Meyer GA, Waecker NJ, Ascher DP, Moriarty RA, Fischer GW, Robb ML. Variability of serial absolute and percent CD4+ lymphocyte counts in healthy children born to human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected parents. Military Pediatric HIV consortium. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13: 7072.
  • 22
    Malone JL, Simms TE, Gray GC, Wagner KF, Burge JR, Burke DS. Sources of variability in repeated T-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: total lymphocyte count fluctuations and diurnal cycle are important. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1990; 3: 144151.
  • 23
    Nagel JE, Chrest FJ, Pyle RS, Adler WH. Monoclonal antibody analysis of T-lymphocyte subsets in young and aged adults. Immunol Commun 1983; 12: 223237.
  • 24
    Tuomala RE, Kalish LA, Zorilla C, Fox H, Shearer W, Landay A, Vermund SH, Landesman S, Burns D. Changes in total, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. The Women and Infants Transmission Study. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89: 967974.
  • 25
    Ullum H, Palmo J, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Diamant M, Klokker M, Kruuse A, LaPerriere A, Pedersen BK. The effect of acute exercise on lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cells, proliferative responses, and cytokines in HIV-seropositive persons. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994; 7: 11221133.
  • 26
    T ran HS, Moncure M, Tarnoff M, Goodman M, Puc MM, Kroon D, Eydelman J, Ross SE. Predictors of operative outcome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Surg 2000; 180: 228233.
  • 27
    Janossy G, Jani I, Gohde W. Affordable CD4+ T cell counts on “single-platform” flow cytometers. I. Primary CD4 gating. Br J Haematol 2000; 111: 11981212.