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LITERATURE CITED

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    Kovacs JA, Masur H. Prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 14161429.
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    Ducloux D, Carron PL, Rebibou JM, Aubin F, Fournier V, Bresson-Vautrin C, Blanc D, Humbert P, Chalopin JM. CD4 lymphocytopenia as a risk factor for skin cancers in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998; 65: 12701272.
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    Brando B, Barnett D, Janossy G, Mandy F, Autran B, Rothe G, Scarpati B, D'Avanzo G, D'hautcourt JL, Lenkei R, Schmitz G, Kunkl A, Chianese R, Papa S, Gratama JW for the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis (EWGCCA). Cytofluorometric methods for assessing absolute numbers of cell subsets in blood. Cytometry 2000; 42: 327346.
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    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for the performance of CD4+ T-cell determinations in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. MMWR 1992; 41: 116.
  • 12
    Calvelli T, Denny TN, Paxton H, Gelman R, Kagan J. Guideline for flow cytometric immunophenotyping: a report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS. Cytometry 1993; 14: 702715.
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    Mandy FF, Bergeron M, Recktenwald D, Izaguirre C. A simultaneous three-color T cell subsets analysis with single laser flow cytometers using T cell gating protocol. J Immunol Methods 1992; 156: 151162.
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    Nicholson JKA, Jones BM, Hubbard M. CD4 T-lymphocyte determinations on whole blood specimens using a single-tube three-color assay. Cytometry 1993; 14: 685689.
  • 15
    Bergeron M, Faucher S, Minkus T, Lacroix F, Ding T, Phaneuf S, Somorjai R, Summers R, Mandy F, and the Participating Flow Cytometry Laboratories of the Canadian Clinical Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Therapies. Impact of unified procedures as implemented in the Canadian quality assurance program for T lymphocyte subset enumeration. Cytometry 1998; 33: 146155.
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    Nicholson JKA, Hubbard M, Jones BM. Use of CD45 fluorescence and side-scatter characteristics for gating lymphocytes when using the whole blood lysis procedure and flow cytometry. Cytometry 1996; 26: 1621.
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    Nicholson J, Kidd P, Mandy F, Livnat D, Kagan J. Three-color supplement to the NIAID DAIDS guideline for flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Cytometry 1996; 26: 227230.
  • 18
    Barnett D, Bird G, Hodges E, Linch DC, Matutes E, Newland AC, Reilly JT, for and on behalf of the General Haematology Task Force of BCSH. Guidelines for the enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes in immunosuppressed individuals. Clin Lab Haematol 1997; 19: 231241.
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    Connelly MC, Knight M, Giorgi JV, Kagan J, Landay AL, Parker JW, Page E, Spino C, Wilkening C, Mercolino TJ. Standardization of absolute CD4+ lymphocyte counts across laboratories: an evaluation of the Ortho CytoronAbsolute flow cytometry system on normal donors. Cytometry 1995; 22: 200210.
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    Nicholson JK, Stein D, Mui T, Mack R, Hubbard M, Denny T. Evaluation of a method for counting absolute numbers of cells with a flow cytometer. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1997; 4: 309313.
  • 21
    Schlenke P, Frohn C, Klueter H, Saballus M, Hammers HJ, Zajac SR, Kirchner H. Evaluation of a flow cytometric method for simultaneous leukocyte phenotyping and quantification by fluorescent microspheres. Cytometry 1998; 33: 310317.
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    Schnizlein-Bick CT, Spritzler J, Wilkening CL, Nicholson JKA, O'Gorman MRG, Site Investigators, and the NIAID DAIDS New Technologies Evaluation Group. Evaluation of TruCount absolute-count tubes for determining CD4 and CD8 cell numbers in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 336343.
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    Reimann KA, O'Gorman MRG, Spritzler J, Wilkening CL, Sabath DE, Helm K, Campbell DE, and the NIAID DAIDS New Technologies Evaluation Group. Multisite comparison of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counting by single- versus multiple-platform methodologies: evaluation of Beckman Coulter Flow-Count fluorospheres and the tetraONE system. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 344351.
  • 24
    Barnett D, Granger V, Mayr P, Reilly JT. Preparation and stabilisation of cells. Patent No. WO 95/01796, 1995, p. 1–31.
  • 25
    Barnett D, Granger V, Mayr P, Storie I, Wilson GA, Reilly JT. Evaluation of a novel stable whole blood quality control material for lymphocyte subset analysis: results from the UK NEQAS Immune Monitoring Scheme. Cytometry 1996; 26: 216222.
  • 26
    Gratama JW, Kraan J, Van den Beemd R, Hooibrink B, Van Bockstaele DR, Hooijkaas H. Analysis of variation in results of flow cytometric lymphocyte immunophenotyping in a multicenter study. Cytometry 1997; 30: 166177.
  • 27
    Barnett D, Granger V, Kraan J, Whitby L, Reilly JT, Papa S, Gratama JW. Reduction of intra- and inter-laboratory variation in CD34+ stem cell enumeration by the use of stable test material, standard protocols and targeted training. Br J Haematol 2000; 108: 784792.
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    Barnett D, Granger V, Whitby L, Storie I, Reilly JT. Absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte and CD34+ stem cell counts by single platform flow cytometry: the way forward. Br J Haematol 1999; 106: 10591062.
  • 29
    Whitby L, Goodfellow K, Storie I, Granger V, Sawle A, Reilly JT, Barnett D. Quality control of CD4+ T-lymphocyte enumeration: results from the last nine years of the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme for Immune Monitoring (1993-2001). Cytometry 50: 102110.
  • 30
    Rickman WJ, Monical C, Waxdal MJ. Improved precision in the enumeration of absolute numbers of lymphocyte phenotypes with long-term monthly proficiency testing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993; 677: 5358.