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LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Weitz J, Herfarth C. Surgical strategies and minimal residual disease detection. Sem Surg Oncol 2001; 20: 329333.
  • 2
    Ghossein RA, Bhattacharya S. Molecular detection and characterisation of circulating tumour cells and micrometastases in solid tumours. Eur J Cancer 2000; 36: 16811694.
  • 3
    Pantel K, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Detection and clinical relevance of micrometastatic cancer cells. Curr Opin Oncol 2000; 12: 95101.
  • 4
    von Knebel Doeberitz M, Koch M, Weitz J, Herfarth C. Diagnostik und Bedeutung der “Minimal Residual Disease” bei Patienten mit kolorektalem Karzinom. Zentralbl Chir 2001; suppl 1: 1519.
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    Hermanek P. Disseminated tumor cells versus micrometastases: definitions and problems. Anticancer Res 1999; 19: 27712774.
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    Lacroix J, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Technical aspects of minimal residual disease detection in carcinoma patients. Semin Surg Oncol 2001; 20: 252264.
  • 7
    Braun S, Rosenberg R, Thorban S, Harbeck N. Implications of occult metastatic cells for systemic cancer treatment in patients with breast or gastrointestinal cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 2001; 20: 344346.
  • 8
    Borgen E, Naume B, Nesland JM, Kvalkeim G, Beiske K, Fodstad O, Diel I, Solomayer EF, Theocharous P, Coombes RC, Smith BM, Wunder E, Marolleau JP, Garcia J, Pantel K. Standardization of the immunocytochemical detection of cancer cells in BM and blood: I. Establishment of objective criteria for the evaluation of immunostained cells. Cytotherapy 1999; 5: 377388.
  • 9
    Mori M, Mimori K, Ueo H, Tsuji K, Shiraishi T, Barnard GF, Sugimachi K, Akiyoshi T. Clinical significance of molecular detection of carcinoma cells in lymph nodes and peripheral blood by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in patients with gastrointestinal or breast carcinomas. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 128132.
  • 10
    Rosenberg R, Hoos A, Mueller J, Nekarda H. Cytokeratin-20 and carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA detection by RT-PCR in regional lymph nodes: differing prognostic impact in patients with pN0 colorectal carcinoma. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 13231329.
  • 11
    Bessa X, Elizalde J, Boix L, Pinol V, Lacy A, Salo J, Pique J, Castells A. Lack of prognostic influence of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 10841092.
  • 12
    Fujita S, Kudo N, Akasu T, Moriya Y. Detection of cytokeratin 19 and 20 mRNA in peripheral and mesenteric blood from colorectal cancer patients and their prognosis. Int J Colorect Dis 2001; 16: 141146.
  • 13
    Jung R, Petersen K, Krüger W, Wolf M, Wagener C, Zander A, Neumaier M. Detection of micrometastasis by cytokeratin 20 RT-PCR is limited due to stable background transcription in granulocytes. Br J Cancer 1999; 81: 870873.
  • 14
    Wong LS, Bateman WJ, Morris AG, Fraser IA. Detection of circulating tumour cells with the magnetic activated cell sorter. Br J Surg 1995; 82: 13331337.
  • 15
    Martin VM, Siewert C, Scharl A, Harms T, Heinze R, Öhl S, Radbruch A, Miltenyi S, Schmitz J. Immunomagnetic enrichment of disseminated epithelial tumor cells from peripheral blood by MACS. Exp Hematol 1998; 26: 252264.
  • 16
    Zigeuner RE, Riesenberg R, Pohla H, Hofstetter A., Oberneder R. Immunomagnetic cell enrichment detects more disseminated cancer cells than immunocytochemistry in vitro. J Urol 2000; 164: 18341837.
  • 17
    Krüger W, Datta C, Badbaran A, Tögel F, Gutensohn K, Carrero I, Kröger N, Jänicke F, Zander A. Immunomagnetic tumor cell selection—implications for the detection of disseminated cancer cells. Transfusion 2000; 40: 14891493.
  • 18
    Moll R, Zimbelmann R, Goldschmidt M, Keith M, Laufer J, Kasper M, Koch P, Franke W. The human gene encoding cytokeratin 20 and its expression during fetal development and in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Differentiation 1993; 53: 7593.
  • 19
    Funaki NO, Tanaka J, Ohshio G, Onodera H, Maetani S, Imamura M. Cytokeratin 20 mRNA in peripheral venous blood of colorectal carcinoma patients. Br J Cancer 1998; 77: 13271332.
  • 20
    Rosenberg R, Hoos A, Mueller J, Baier P, Stricker D, Werner M, Nekarda H, Siewert JR. Prognostic significance of cytokeratin-20 RT-PCR in lymph nodes of node negative (pN0) colorectal cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 10491055.
  • 21
    Soong R, Beyser K, Basten O, Kalbe A, Rueschoff J, Tabiti K. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction detection of cytokeratin 20 in noncolorectal lymph nodes. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 34233429.
  • 22
    Funke I, Schraut W. Meta-analysis of studies on bone-marrow micrometastases: an independent prognostic impact remains to be substantiated. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 557566.
  • 23
    Henke W, Loening S. Detection of illegitimate transcripts of prostate-specific antigen mRNA in blood of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Int J Cancer 1998; 77: 164165.
  • 24
    Kufer P, Zippelius A, Lutterbüse R, Mecklenburg I, Enzmann T, Montag A, Weckermann D, Passlick B, Prang N, Reichardt P, Dugas M, Köllermann M, Pantel K, Riethmüller G. Heterogenous expression of MAGE-A genes in occult disseminated tumor cells: a novel multimarker reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 251261.
  • 25
    Pantel K, Otte M. Disseminated tumor cells: diagnosis, prognostic relevance, and phenotyping. Recent Results Cancer Res 2001; 158: 1424.
  • 26
    Weitz J, Kienle P, Lacroix J, Willeke F, Benner A, Lehnert T, Herfarth C, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Dissemination of tumor cells in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4: 343348.
  • 27
    Koch M. Weitz J, Kienle P, Benner A, Willeke F, Lehnert T, Herfarth C, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Comparative analysis of tumor cell dissemination in mesenteric, central, and peripheral blood in patients with colorectal cancer. Arch Surg 2001; 136: 8589.
  • 28
    Piva MG, Navaglia F, Basso D, Fogar P, Roveroni G, Gallo N, Zambon C-F, Pedrazzoli S, Plebani M. CEA mRNA identification in peripheral blood is feasible for colorectal, but not for gastric or pancreatic cancer staging. Oncology 2000; 59: 323328.
  • 29
    Burchill SA, Bradbury MF, Pittman K, Southgate J, Smith B, Selby P. Detection of epithelial cells in peripheral blood by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 278281.
  • 30
    Champelovier P, Mongelard F, Seigneurin D. CK20 gene expression: technical limits for the detection of circulating tumor cells. Anticancer Res 1999; 19: 20732078.