Nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The genetic changes associated with pathogenesis have not been well defined. This study investigates the nonrandom genetic alteration of nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. Methods: Nine cases were studied. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out using fresh tumor tissues of seven nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas. To complement the data by CGH, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 6q, 1p, and 17p using polymorphic markers and p53 gene mutation by polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) were analyzed. Results: The DNA copy number changes of seven nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas were gains on chromosomes 2q(5), 13q(4), 10q(3), 21q(2), 3q(2), 5q(2), and 17q(2), and losses involving chromosomes 1p(4), 17p(4), 12q(3), 13q(2), and 6q(1). One of six cases informative for at least two markers for chromosome 6q showed LOH at D6S300, D6S1639, D6S261, D6S407, and D6S292. Two cases showing loss of 1p and 17q by CGH revealed LOH at D1S214, D1S503, and D17S559. P53 mutation was detected in exon 8 in one of nine cases. Conclusion: Frequent DNA losses at 1p, 17p, and 12q and gains at 2q, 13q, and 10q suggested that these regions could be targets for further molecular genetic analysis to investigate tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes associated with tumorigenesis of NK/T-cell lymphoma. Infrequent alteration of 6q contrary to previous studies raises doubt about an implication of 6q loss in the pathogenesis of early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma. Further studies on more defined cases are required to verify their association. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:85–91, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.