Flow cytometric analysis employing monoclonal antibodies to the Tn antigen and glycophorin A was used to characterize the erythrocyte populations present in blood samples from individuals with Tn syndrome. Four monoclonal antibodies specific for the Tn antigen, GalNAc monosaccharide, on human erythrocytes were obtained from a fusion of splenocytes from a Biozzi mouse immunized with red cells from a Tn individual. These monoclonal antibodies specifically recognize GalNAc monosaccharide sites located on the erythrocyte cell surface sialoglycoproteins, glycophorin A and glycophorin B, and do not bind to fixed normal red cells presenting the Neu-NAcα2-3Galβ1-3(NeuNAcα2-6)GalNAcα1-O-Ser(Thr) tetrasaccharide or to fixed neuraminidase-digested cells presenting the Gal-GalNAc disaccharide. The percentages of Tn-positive red cells in samples from six unrelated Tn donors ranged from 28 to 99%. Binding of the glycophorin A-specific monoclonal antibodies showed that the erythrocytes composing the Tn-negative fraction presented normal amounts of the M and N epitopes on glycophorin A. The presumed somatic mutational origin of Tn-positive cells was tested in blood samples from five normal donors; three possible Tn cells were observed after analysis of a total of 1.1 X 107 erythrocytes, suggesting that the frequency of such cells in normal individuals is > 1 X 10−6.