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Keywords:

  • Dynamic range;
  • coefficient of variation;
  • calibration

Abstract

Logarithmic amplifiers (log amps), which produce an output signal proportional to the logarithm of the input signal, are widely used in cytometry for measurements of parameters that vary over a wide dynamic range, e.g., cell surface immunofluorescence. Existing log amp circuits all deviate to some extent from ideal performance with respect to dynamic range and fidelity to the logarithmic curve; accuracy in quantitative analysis using log amps therefore requires that log amps be individually calibrated. However, accuracy and precision may be limited by photon statistic and system noise when very low level input signals are encountered.