• Fluorescence lifetime;
  • phasesensitive detection;
  • propidium iodide;
  • fluorescein isothiocyanate;
  • fluorescence phase-resolved measurement


A flow cytometric method has been developed that uses phase-sensitive detection to separate signals from simultaneous fluorescence emissions in cells labeled with fluorochromes having different fluorescence decay lifetimes. By CHO cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). These dyes bind to DNA and protein and the fluorescence lifetimes of the bound dyes are 15.0 and 3.6 ns, respectively. Cells were analyzed as they passed through a modulated (sinusoidal) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence was measured using only a long pass filter to block scattered laser excitation light and a single photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence detector output signals were processed by dual-channel phase-sensitive detection electronics and the phase-resolved Pland FITC signals were displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate plots. By shifting the phase of one detector channel reference signal by π/2 + ψ1 degrees and the phase of the other detector channel reference signal by −π/2 + ψ2 degrees, where ψ1 and ψ2 are the phase shifts associated with the PI and FITC lifetimes, the PI and FITC signals were separately resolved at their respective phase-sensitive detector outputs. This technology is also applicable to suppressing background interferences caused by cellular autofluorescence, unbound/free dye, nonspecific dye binding, and Raman and Rayleigh scattering. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.