The use of flow cytometry for the investigation of cell death



Flow cytometry is more and more widely used for investigations of cell death, predominantly in the study of DNA degradation in cells dying by apoptosis. There are different interpretations of changes observed in DNA histograms of these cells. We describe an approach based on extraction of chromatin degradation products from fixed cells and subsequent staining with DNA specific dyes. Apoptotic cells containing fragmented DNA are observed in < 2C DNA region of DNA histograms. DNA histograms of irradiated thymocytes dying in vitro and stained without extraction of fragmented DNA do not differ from control. Under the same staining conditions DNA histograms of lymphocytes dying in thymus of irradiated animals reveal fluorescent material in < 2C DNA region, most likely due to formation of apoptotic bodies (cell fragments, some of them contain fragments of nuclei). Similar changes are observed in thymocytes dying upon glucocorticoid treatment. Our present results and other data indicate that reduced amount of DNA in dying cells is the main reason for changes of DNA histograms. Examples of application of the method described for the investigations of cell death modifiers are presented. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.