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LITERATURE CITED

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    Moreno J, O'Hara SM, Gross S, Doyle G, Fritsche H, Gomella L, Terstappen LWMM. Changes in circulating carcinoma cells in patients with metastatic prostate cancer correlate with disease status. Urology 2001; 58: 386392.
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    Fehm T, Sagalowsky A, Clifford E, Beitsch P, Saboorian H, Euhus D, Meng S, Morrison L, Tucker T, Lane N, Ghadimi BM, Heselmeyer-Haddad K, Ried T, Rao C, Uhr J. Cytogenetic evidence that circulating epithelial cells in patients with carcinoma are malignant. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 20732084.
  • 10
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    Seronie-Vivien S, Mery E, Delord JP, Fillola G, Tkaczuk J, Voigt JJ, Bugat R. Carcinocythemia as the single extension of breast cancer: report of a case and review of the literature Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 10191022.
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  • 16
    Cristofanilli M, Reuben JM, Fritsche HA, Kau SW, Lara J, Arun B, Valero V, Chedid S, Miller C, Allard J, Terstappen LWMM, Hortobagyi GN. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs): a novel prognostic factor for newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res LB-126 2003; 45: 5270.
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    Miller MC, Gross S, Allard WJ, Terstappen LWMM, Gomella LG, Moreno JG. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) predict survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2004; 44: 1349.
  • 18
    Rao C, Rutner H, Hermann M, Russell T, Terstappen LWMM. Preservative of blood specimens to prevent breakdown of circulating tumor cells. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2002; 43: 734735.
  • 19
    Allard J, Hayes DF, Repollet MI, Rao C, Hermann ML, Matera J, Miller MC, Terstappen LWMM. A cellular preservative improves the specificity and yield of circulating tumor cells in carcinoma patients. Proc ASCO 2003; 22: 3482.
  • 20
    Kagan M, Howard D, Bendele T, Mayes J, Silvia J, Repollet M, Doyle J, Allard J, Tu N, Bui T, Russell T, Rao C, Hermann M, Rutner H, Terstappen LWMM. A sample preparation and analysis system for identification of circulating tumor cells. J Clin Ligand Assay 2002; 25: 104110.
  • 21
    Leers MPG, Kölgen W, Björklund V, Bergman T, Tribbick G, Persson B, Björklund P, Ramaekers F, Björklund B, Nap M, Jörnvall H, Schutte B. Immunocytochemical detection and mapping of a cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope exposed during early apoptosis. J Pathol 1999; 187: 567572.
  • 22
    Janni W, Hepp F, Rjosk D, Kentenich C, Strobl B, Schindlbeck C, Hantschmann P, Sommer H, Pantel K, Braun S. The fate and prognostic value of occult metastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with breast carcinoma between primary treatment and recurrence. Cancer 2001; 92: 4653.
  • 23
    Braun S, Pantel K, Muller P, Janni W, Hepp F, Kentenich CR, Gastroph S, Wischnik A, Dimpfl T, Kinderman G, Riethmuller G, Schlimok G. Cytokeratin positive cells in the bone marrow and survival of patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 525533.
  • 24
    Maguire D, O'Sullivan GC, Collins JK, Morgan J, Shanahan F. Bone marrow micrometastases and gastrointestinal cancer detection and significance. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 16441651.
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  • 25
    Simmons R, Hoda S, Osborne M. Bone marrow micrometastases in breast cancer patients. Am J Surg 2000; 180: 309312.
  • 26
    Borgen E, Naume B, Nesland JM, Kvalheim G, Beiske K, Fodstad Ø, Diel I, Solomayer, E-F, Theocharous P, Coombes RC, Smith BM, Wunder E, Marolleau, J-P, Garcia J, Pantel K. Standardization of the immunocytochemical detection of cancer cells in BM and blood: I. Establishment of objective criteria for the evaluation of immunostained cells. Cytotherapy 1999; 5: 377388.
  • 27
    Wang ZP, Eisengberger M, Carducci M, Partin A, Scher H, Ts'o POP. Identification and characterization of circulating prostate carcinoma cells. Cancer 2000; 88: 27872795.
  • 28
    Mehes G, Witt A, Kubista E, Ambros P. Circulating breast cancer cells are frequently apoptotic. Am J Pathol 2001; 159: 1720.
  • 29
    Bursch W, Hochegger K, Török L, Marian B, Ellinger A, Hermann RS. Autophagic and apoptotic types of programmed cell death exhibit different fates on cytoskeletal elements. J Cell Sci 2000; 113: 11891198.
  • 30
    Caulin C, Salvesen GS, Oshima RG. Caspase cleavage of keratin 18 and reorganization of intermediate filaments during epithelial cell apoptosis. J Cell Biol 1997; 138: 13791394.
  • 31
    Leers MPG, Björklund V, Björklund B, Jörnvall H, Nap M. An immunocytochemical study of clearance of apoptotic cellular fragments. Cell Mol Life Sci 2002; 59: 13581365.
  • 32
    Hayes DF, Walker TM, Singh B, Vitetta ES, Uhr JW, Gross S, Rao C, Doyle GV, Terstappen LWMM. Monitoring expression of HER-2 on circulating epithelial cells in patients with advanced breast cancer. Int J Oncol 2002; 21: 11111118.
  • 33
    O'Hara SM. Moreno J, Zweitzig DR, Gross S, Gomella LG, Terstappen LWMM. Multigene reverse transcription-PCR profiling of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in hormone refractory prostate cancer. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 826835.
  • 34
    Cristofanilli M, Budd GT, Ellis MJ, Stopeck A, Matera J, Miller MC, Reuben JM, Doyle GV, Allard WJ, Terstappen LW, Hayes DF. Circulating tumor cells, disease progression, and survival in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 781791.