Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: A biological review


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Microscopic imaging of cells and tissues are generated by the interaction of light with either the sample itself or contrast agents that label the sample. Most contrast agents, however, alter the cell in order to introduce molecular labels, complicating live cell imaging. The interaction of light from multiple laser sources has given rise to microscopy, based on Raman scattering or vibrational resonance, which demonstrates selectivity to specific chemical bonds while imaging unmodified live cells. Here, we discuss the nonlinear optical technique of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, its instrumentation, and its status in live cell imaging. © 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology