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Keywords:

  • fluorescence;
  • spectral analysis;
  • flow cytometry;
  • charge-coupled device;
  • spectral deconvolution;
  • multiplex microsphere analysis

Abstract

Background:

While conventional multiparameter flow cytometers have proven highly successful, there are several types of analytical measurements that would benefit from a more comprehensive and flexible approach to spectral analysis including, but certainly not limited to spectral deconvolution of overlapping emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements, metachromic dye analysis, free versus bound dye resolution, and Raman spectroscopy.

Methods:

Our system utilizes a diffraction grating to disperse the collected fluorescence and side-scattered light from cells or microspheres passing through the interrogation region over a rectangular charge-coupled-device image sensor. The flow cell and collection optics are taken from a conventional flow cytometer with minimal modifications to assure modularity of the system.

Results:

Calibration of the prototype spectral analysis flow cytometer included wavelength characterization and calibration of the dispersive optics. Benchmarking of the system demonstrated a single particle/cell intensity sensitivity of 2160 MESF of R-Phycoerythrin. Single particle spectra taken with our instrument were validated against bulk solution fluorimeter and conventional flow cytometer measurements. Coefficients of variation of integrated spectral fluorescence intensity of several sets of standard fluorescent microspheres ranged from 1.4 to 4.8% on the spectral system. Spectral discrimination of free versus PI bound to cells is also demonstrated.

Conclusions:

It is demonstrated that the flow spectrometer has sufficient sensitivity and wavelength resolution to detect single cells and microspheres, including multi-fluorophore labeled microspheres. The capability to use both standard mathematical deconvolution techniques for data analysis, coupled with the feasibility of integration with existing flow cytometers, will improve the accuracy and precision of ratiometric measurements, enable the analysis of more discrete emission bands within a given wavelength range, and allow more precise resolution of the relative contribution of individual fluorophores in multiply-tagged samples, thereby enabling a range of new applications involving the spectral analysis of single cells and particles. © 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology