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LITERATURE CITED

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    Gross HJ,Verwer B,Houck D,Hoffman RA,Recktenwald D. Model study detecting breast cancer cells at frequencies as low as 10-7. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 537541.
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    Bajaj S,Welsh JB,Leif RC,Price JH. Ultra-rare-event detection performance of a custom scanning cytometer on a model preparation of fetal nRBCs. Cytometry 2000; 39: 285294.
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    Rosenblatt JI,Hokanson JA,McLaughlin SR,Leary JF. Theoretical basis for sampling statistics useful for detecting and isolating rare cells using flow cytometry and cell sorting. Cytometry 1997; 27: 233238.
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    Dumont LJ. Sampling errors and the precision associated with counting very low numbers of white cells in blood components. Transfusion 1991; 31: 428431.
  • 5
    Terstappen LWMM. Detection of infrequent cells in blood and bone marrow by flowcytometry. In: HoA, HaasR, ChamplinRE, editors. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2000. pp 137152.
  • 6
    Kagan M,Howard D,Bendele T,Mayes J,Silvia J,Repollet M,Doyle J,Allard J,Tu N,Bui T,Russell T,Rao C,Hermann M,Rutner H,Terstappen LWMM. A sample preparation and analysis system for identification of circulating tumor cells. J Clin Ligand Assay 2002; 25: 104110.
  • 7
    Kagan M,Howard D,Bendele T,Rao C,Terstappen LWMM. Circulating tumor cells as cancer markers, a sample preparation and analysis system. In: DiamandisEP, FritscheHA, LiljaH, ChanDW, SchwartzM, editors. Tumor Markers: Physiology, Pathobiology, Technology and Clinical Applications. Washington: AACC Press; 2002. pp 495498.
  • 8
    Cristofanilli M,Budd GT,Ellis MJ,Stopeck A,Matera J,Miller MC,Rueben JM,Doyle G,Allard WJ,Terstappen LWMM,Hayes DF. Circulating tumor cells, disease progression and survival in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 781791.
  • 9
    Rao CG,Chianese D,Doyle GV,Miller MC,Russell T,Sanders RA,Terstappen LWMM. Expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells present in blood and primary and metastatic tumors. Int J Oncol 2005; 27: 4957.
  • 10
    Allard WJ,Matera J,Miller MC,Repollet M,Connelly MC,Rao C,Tibbe A,Uhr JW,Terstappen LWMM. Tumor cells circulate in the peripheral blood of all major carcinomas but not in healthy subjects or patients with non-malignant diseases. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 68976904.
  • 11
    Myerowitz RL,Edwards PA,Sartiano GP. Carcinocythemia (carcinoma cell leukemia) due to metastatic carcinoma of the breast: Report of a case. Cancer 1977; 40: 31073111.
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    Gallivan MV,Lokich JJ. Carcinocythemia (carcinoma cell leukemia). Report of two cases with English literature review. Cancer 1984; 53: 11001102.
  • 13
    Yam LT,Janckila AJ. Immunocytodiagnosis of carcinocythemia in disseminated breast cancer. Acta Cytol 1987; 31: 6872.
  • 14
    Racila E,Euhus D,Weiss AJ,Rao C,McConnell J,Terstappen LWMM,Uhr JW. Detection and characterization of carcinoma cells in the blood. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95: 45894594.
  • 15
    Terstappen LWMM,Rao C,Gross S,Weiss A. Peripheral blood tumor cell load reflects the clinical activity of the disease in patients with carcinoma of the breast. Int J Oncol 2000; 17: 573578.