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LITERATURE CITED

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    Mohler ER,III. Therapy insight: Peripheral arterial disease and diabetes—From pathogenesis to treatment guidelines. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2007; 4: 151162.
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    Fadini GP,Agostini C,Avogaro A. Characterization of endothelial progenitor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 336: 12.
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    Khakoo AY,Finkel T. Endothelial progenitor cells. Ann Rev Med 2005; 56: 79101.
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    Möbius-Winkler S,Höllriegel R,Schuler G,Adams V. Endothelial progenitor cells: Implications for cardiovascular disease. Cytometry A 2009; 75A: in press. DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.20669 (this issue).
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    Hill JM,Zalos G,Halcox JP,Schenke WH,Waclawiw MA,Quyyumi AA,Finkel T. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 593600.
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    Walter DH,Rittig K,Bahlmann FH,Kirchmair R,Silver M,Murayama T,Nishimura H,Losordo DW,Asahara T,Isner JM. Statin therapy accelerates reendothelialization: a novel effect involving mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Circulation 2002; 105: 30173024.
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    Llevadot J,Murasawa S,Kureishi Y,Uchida S,Masuda H,Kawamoto A,Walsh K,Isner JM,Asahara T. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor mobilizes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 399405.
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    Fadini GP,Miorin M,Facco M,Bonamico S,Baesso I,Grego F,Menegolo M,de Kreutzenberg SV,Tiengo A,Agostini C,Avogaro A. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells are reduced in peripheral vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 14491457.
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    Fadini GP,Sartore S,Albiero M,Baesso I,Murphy E,Menegolo M,Grego F,Vigili de KS,Tiengo A,Agostini C,Avogaro A. Number and function of endothelial progenitor cells as a marker of severity for diabetic vasculopathy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 21402146.
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    Gallagher KA,Liu ZJ,Xiao M,Chen H,Goldstein LJ,Buerk DG,Nedeau A,Thom SR,Velazquez OC. Diabetic impairments in NO-mediated endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and homing are reversed by hyperoxia and SDF-1 alpha. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 12491259.
  • 16
    Mohler ER3rd,Fang Y,Shaffer RG,Moore J,Wilensky RL,Parmacek M,Levitan I. Hypercholesterolemia suppresses Kir channels in porcine bone marrow progenitor cells in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 358: 317324.
  • 17
    Sainz J,Al Haj Zen A,Caligiuri G,Demerens C,Urbain D,Lemitre M,Lafont A. Isolation of “side population” progenitor cells from healthy arteries of adult mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 281286.
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    Landmesser U,Bahlmann F,Mueller M,Spiekermann S,Kirchhoff N,Schulz S,Manes C,Fischer D,de GK,Fliser D,Fauler G,Marz W,Drexler H. Simvastatin versus ezetimibe: pleiotropic and lipid-lowering effects on endothelial function in humans. Circulation 2005; 111: 23562363.
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    Mohler ER3rd,Sarov-Blat L,Shi Y,Hamamdzic D,Zalewski A,Macphee C,Llano R,Pelchovitz D,Mainigi SK,Osman H, et al. Site-specific atherogenic gene expression correlates with subsequent variable lesion development in coronary and peripheral vasculature. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28: 850855.
  • 20
    Goodell MA,Rosenzweig M,Kim H,Marks DF,DeMaria M,Paradis G,Grupp SA,Sieff CA,Mulligan RC,Johnson RP. Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat Med 1997; 3: 13371345.
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    Goodell MA. Multipotential stem cells and ‘side population’ cells. Cytotherapy. 2002; 4: 507508.
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    Maki-Petaja KM,Booth AD,Hall FC,Wallace SM,Brown J,McEniery CM,Wilkinson IB. Ezetimibe and simvastatin reduce inflammation, disease activity, and aortic stiffness and improve endothelial function in rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50: 852858.
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    Creager MA,Luscher TF,Cosentino F,Beckman JA. Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy. Part I. Circulation 2003; 108: 15271532.
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    Colhoun HM,Betteridge DJ,Durrington PN,Hitman GA,Neil HA,Livingstone SJ,Thomason MJ,Mackness MI,Charlton-Menys V,Fuller JH. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 685696.
  • 31
    Tepper OM,Galiano RD,Capla JM,Kalka C,Gagne PJ,Jacobowitz GR,Levine JP,Gurtner GC. Human endothelial progenitor cells from type II diabetics exhibit impaired proliferation, adhesion, and incorporation into vascular structures. Circulation 2002; 106: 27812786.
  • 32
    Avogaro A,Fadini GP,Gallo A,Pagnin E,de KS. Endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2006; 16 ( Suppl 1): S39S45.
  • 33
    Loomans CJ,de Koning EJ,Staal FJ,Rookmaaker MB,Verseyden C,de Boer HC,Verhaar MC,Braam B,Rabelink TJ,van Zonneveld AJ. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction: a novel concept in the pathogenesis of vascular complications of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53: 195199.
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    Rivard A,Silver M,Chen D,Kearney M,Magner M,Annex B,Peters K,Isner JM. Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF. Am J Pathol 1999; 154(2): 355363.
  • 35
    Poli A,Pujia A. Pleiotropic effects of statins and early benefit in the PROVE IT-TIMI-22 study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48: 852853.
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    Fichtlscherer S,Schmidt-Lucke C,Bojunga S,Rossig L,Heeschen C,Dimmeler S,Zeiher AM. Differential effects of short-term lipid lowering with ezetimibe and statins on endothelial function in patients with CAD: clinical evidence for ‘pleiotropic’ functions of statin therapy. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 11821190.
  • 37
    Vasa M,Fichtlscherer S,Adler K,Aicher A,Martin H,Zeiher AM,Dimmeler S. Increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells by statin therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001; 103: 28852890.
  • 38
    Zhang L,Zalewski A,Liu Y,Mazurek T,Cowan S,Martin JL,Hofmann SM,Vlassara H,Shi Y. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation in porcine coronary arteries. Circulation 2003; 108: 472478.
  • 39
    Scadden DT. The stem-cell niche as an entity of action. Nature 2006; 441: 10751079.
  • 40
    Wenzel P,Daiber A,Oelze M,Brandt M,Closs E,Xu J,Thum T,Bauersachs J,Ertl G,Zou MH,Forstermann U,Munzel T. Mechanisms underlying recoupling of eNOS by HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis 2008; 198: 6576.