NOTES AND Literature Cited

  • 1
    Anonymous. Wallace H. Coulter, After CYTO 2013 the relevant text was changed [Ref. 18], but was substantially identical to that of Refs. 2, 8, and 10; a PDF file of the April 22, 2013 posting is available.
  • 2
    Anonymous. Wallace H. Coulter, Cytometry 10, Purdue CDrom series, 2007. The relevant text was accessed August 17, 2013 at:
  • 3
    Anonymous. Coulter Principle,, accessed on August 17, 2013. Entries under the “View History” tab illustrate how Wikipedia articles can be manipulated; see particularly: a) the entry for March 30, 2009 when what is essentially the paint story of Refs 2 and 8 replaced another nonfactual conjecture in which Wallace was doing plankton work for the U.S. Navy [Ref. 4]; b) entries for May 20, 2010 when a reasonably accurate article was substituted for the paint story, only to be replaced within minutes by the same paint story; c) the entries for June 2, 2010, when the reasonably accurate article was again substituted for the paint story, again only to be replaced in minutes by the same paint story, which was then immediately flagged as by a major contributor having a close connection with the article's subject; and d) the entry for July 7, 2010 in which the paint story was briefly summarized, to remain until May 17, 2011.
  • 4
    Anonymous. Coulter Principle,, accessed August 17, 2013. This conjecture is set during World War II, several years before Wallace invented the Coulter Principle.
  • 5
    Chapman MR, Sohn LL. Label-free resistive-pulse cytometry. In: Darzynkiewicz Z, Holden E, Orfao A, Telford WG, Wlodkowic D, editors. Recent Advances in Cytometry, Part A: Instrumentation, Methods, 5th ed., Vol. 102: Methods in Cell Biology. San Diego: Academic Press; 2011. pp 127157, specifically p 131.
  • 6
    Chon CH, Zhang H, Pan X, Li D. Microfluidic particle counting sensors. In: Mitra SK, Chakraborty S, editors. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Fabrication, Implementation, and Applications, Vol. 2. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2011. pp 415432, specifically p 416.
  • 7
    Neal M. Coulter, Wallace Henry,, accessed September 12, 2013. The relevant text was updated September 11, 2013 to remove the Foundation's first paint story; a PDF file of the July 19, 2013 posting is available.
  • 8
    Anonymous, Wallace H. Coulter Foundation. Wallace Henry Coulter; a short biography. In: Sack U, Tárnok A, Rothe G, editors. Cellular Diagnostics. Basel: Karger; 2009. pp xxxxvi, specifically xxii. Available at:, accessed on August 17, 2013.
  • 9
    Robinson JP. Cytometry—A definitive history of the early days. In: Sack U, Tárnok A, Rothe G, editors. Cellular Diagnostics. Basel: Karger; 2009. pp 128, specifically p 8.
  • 10
    Lee J-S. Biomedical Engineering Entrepreneurship. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2010. pp 5354.
  • 11
    Graham MD. The Coulter Principle: Foundation of an industry. JALA 2003;8:7281, specifically p 72. Available at:, accessed on August 17, 2013. Please note that an uncaught typo in the legend for Fig. 6 has Wallace's birth date as February 13, instead of the correct February 17, 1913.
  • 12
    Moldavan A. Photo-electric technique for counting of microscopical cells. Science 1934;80:188189.
  • 13
    Hirsch FG, Wood LA, Ballard WC, Frey C, Wright IS. The relationship between the erythrocyte concentration and the specific electro conductivity of blood. Bull NY Acad Med 1948 (2nd series);24:393394.
  • 14
    Coulter WH. High speed automatic blood cell counter and cell size analyzer. In: Proceedings of National Electronics Conference, 1956 (Vol. 12). Chicago: National Electronics Conference, Inc.; 1957. pp 10341040. Reprinted in: Lichtman MA, editor. Hematology Landmark Papers of the Twentieth Century. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. pp 913–921. ONR support via its contract with NONR-1054(00) was acknowledged.
  • 15
    Simson E. Wallace Coulter's life and his impact on the world. Int J Lab Hematol 2013;35:230236, specifically p 231. Available at:, accessed on August 17, 2013.
  • 16
    Anonymous. About Wallace Coulter: A legacy of spirit and vision,, accessed August 17, 2013.
  • 17
    Robinson JP. Wallace H. Coulter: Decades of invention and discovery. Cytometry A 2013;83A:424438, specifically p 426 and 431. Available at:, accessed on August 17, 2013.
  • 18
    Anonymous. Wallace H. Coulter,, accessed on August 15, 2013. A PDF file of the posting is available. A revisit August 16, 2013 showed that both the Foundation's second paint story and a page featuring papers cited in Refs 15 and 17 were unavailable [Ref. 23].
  • 19
    Anonymous. First Golden Goose Award of 2013 goes to Wallace Coulter, As of September 25, 2013, the press release had been withdrawn, but some keyword combinations in searches still yielded the address above together with summary details of the AAU's paint conjecture; clicking on the link prompted a message that the press release itself was unavailable. Unfortunately, this partial remedy also leaves detailed derivatives of the AAU's fictional press release accessible on numerous third-party web sites. A PDF file of the AAU's posting on September 15, 2013 is available; see also Ref. 24.
  • 20
    Ingram HA. Outside gray paint—Manufacturing formula. C-S19-1 (2–19)(DYr),, accessed on August 17, 2013. Paints based on polymeric oils or alkyd resins do not actually freeze, are electrically nonconductive, and are immiscible with water-based electrolyte solutions; water-based exterior paints were not available until after Wallace had demonstrated the Coulter Principle. When his demonstrations October 16 and 30, 1948 were done, the outside air temperature was well above freezing at Chicago's Midway Airport, some seven miles from the Coulter brothers' home; see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Integrated Surface Hourly Dataset, accessed August 17, 2013 as processed by at: The Coulters' basement laboratory would have been warmer than the outside air temperature.
  • 21
    Rosenson RS, McCormick A, Uretz EF. Distribution of blood viscosity values and biochemical correlates in healthy adults. Clin Chem 1996;42:11891195. See abstract, p 1189. Available at:, accessed on August 17, 2013.
  • 22
    In addition, Navy paint conjectures based on color inconsistency assume that paints were premixed, but some twenty-five 1940s Navy paints could be prepared where used by adding a tinting media to a white base:, accessed August 18, 2013. Color variation in applied paints was more likely due to careless mixing than to differences in concentration of pigment particles in the constituents; moreover, by August 10, 1946 the Navy's emphasis was minimizing costs, not repainting its ships in unnecessarily uniform colors:, accessed August 18, 2013.
  • 23
    Anonymous. Wallace H. Coulter,, accessed August 16, 2013; a PDF file of the posting is available.
  • 24
    Anonymous. Golden Goose Awards to Researchers behind marriage algorithm and National Kidney Exchange,, accessed September 13, 2013. This press release states that the Foundation could not verify that federal funding supported Wallace's discovery of the Coulter Principle, which is factual; however, it conveniently ignores the fiction of the paint conjecture in the AAU's original press release [Ref. 19]. A PDF file of the press release is available.