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LITERATURE CITED

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    Dacie JV. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Proc R Soc Med 1963; 56: 587596.
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    Oni SB,Osunkoya BO,Luzzatto L. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Evidence for monoclonal origin of abnormal red cells. Blood 1970; 36: 145152.
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    Miyata T,Takeda J,Iida Y,Yamada N,Inoue N,Takahashi M,Maeda K,Kitani T,Kinoshita T. The cloning of PIG-A, a component in the early step of GPI-anchor biosynthesis. Science 1993; 259: 13181320.
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    Takeda J,Miyata T,Kawagoe K,Iida Y,Endo Y,Fujita T,Takahashi M,Kitani T,Kinoshita T. Deficiency of the GPI anchor caused by a somatic mutation of the PIG-A gene in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Cell 1993; 73: 703711.
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    Bessler M,Mason PJ,Hillmen P,Miyata T,Yamada N,Takeda N,Luzzatto L,Kinoshita T. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene. EMBO J 1994; 13: 110117.
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    Nafa K,Bessler M,Castro-Malaspina H,Jhanwar S,Luzzatto L. The spectrum of somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria includes large deletions and small duplications. Blood Cells Mol Dis 1998; 24: 370384.
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    Armstrong C,Schubert J,Ueda E,Knez JJ,Gelperin D,Hirose S,Silber R,Hollan S,Schmidt RE,Medof ME. Affected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria T lymphocytes harbour a common defect in assembly of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inositol phospholipid corresponding to that in class A Thy-1-murine lymphoma mutants. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 2534725351.
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    Hillmen P,Bessler M,Mason PJ,Watkins WM,Luzzatto L. Specific defect in N-acetylglucosamine incorporation in the GPI-anchor synthetic pathway in cloned cell lines from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 52725276.
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    Rosse WF,Ware RE. The molecular basis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 1995; 86: 32773286.
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    Dunn DE,Tanawattacharoen P,Boccuni P,Nagakura S,Green SW,Kirby MR,Kumar MS,Rosenfeld S,Young NS. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells in patients with bone marrow failure syndromes Ann Int Med 1999; 131: 401408.
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    Hillmen P,Lewis SM,Bessler M,Luzzatto L,Dacie JV. Natural history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 12531258.
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    Nicholson-Weller A,March JP,Rosenfeld JP,Austen KF. Affected erythrocytes of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria are deficient in the complement regulatory protein, decay acceleration factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983; 80: 50665070.
  • 13
    Holguin MH,Frederick LR,Bernshaw NJ,Wilcox LA,Parker CJ. Isolation and characterization of a membrane protein from normal human erythrocytes that inhibits reactive lysis of the erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 717.
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    Yamashina M,Ueda E,Kinoshita T,Takami T,Ojima A,Ono H,Tanaka H,Kondo N,Orii T,Okada N,Okada H,Inoue K,Kitani T. Inherited complete deficiency of 20-kilodalton homologous restriction factor (CD59) as a cause of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 11841189.
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    Motoyama N,Okada N,Yamashina M,Okada H. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria due to hereditary nucleotide deletion in the HRF20 (CD59) gene. Eur J Immunol 1992; 10: 26692673.
  • 16
    Kinoshita T,Medof ME,Silber R,Nussenzweig V. Distribution of decay-accelerating factor in the peripheral blood of normal individuals and patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. J Exp Med 1985; 162: 7592.
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    Nicholson-Weller A,Spicer DB,Austen KF. Deficiency of the complement regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor, on membranes of granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 10911097.
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    van der Schoot CE,Huizinga TW,van't Veer-Korthof ET,Wijmans R,Pinkster J,von dem Borne AE. Deficiency of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane glycoproteins of leukocytes in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, description of a new diagnostic cytofluorometric assay. Blood 1990; 76: 18531859.
  • 19
    Richards SJ,Rawstron AC,Hillmen P. Application of flow cytometry to the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Cytometry 2000; 42: 223233.
  • 20
    Parker C,Omine M,Richards S,Nishimura J,Bessler M,Ware R,Hillmen P,Luzzatto L,Young N,Kinoshita T,Rosse W,Socie G,International PNH Interest Group. Diagnosis and management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2005; 106: 36993709.
  • 21
    Ham TH,Dingle JH. Studies on the destruction of red blood cells. II. Chronic hemolytic anemia with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Certain immunological aspects of the hemolytic mechanism with special reference to serum complement. J Clin Invest 1939; 18: 657672.
  • 22
    Hall SE,Rosse WF. The use of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry in the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 1996; 87: 53325340.
  • 23
    Howard SP,Buckley JT. Activation of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin by extracelular processing. J Bacteriol 1985; 163: 336340.
  • 24
    Diep DB,Nelson KL,Raja SM,Pleshak EN,Buckley JT. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of membrane glycoproteins are binding determinants for the channel-forming toxin aerolysin. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 23552360.
  • 25
    Brodsky RA,Mukhina GL,Nelson KL,Lawrence TS,Jones RJ,Buckley JT. Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin. Blood 1999; 93: 17491756.
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    Brodsky RA,Mukhina GL,Li S,Nelson KL,Chiurazzi PL,Buckley JT,Borowitz MJ. Improved detection and characterization of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria using fluorescent aerolysin. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 114: 459466.
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    MacKenzie CR,Hirama T,Buckley JT. Analysis of receptor binding by the channel-forming toxin aerolysin using surface plasmon resonance. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 2260422609.
  • 28
    Peghini PE,Fehr J. Clinical evaluation of an Aerolysin-based screening test for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2005; 67: 1318.
  • 29
    Hill A,Hillmen P,Richards SJ,Elebute D,Marsh JC,Chan J,Mojcik CF,Rother RP. Sustained response and long-term safety of eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2005; 106: 25592565.