• 1
    Heinrich MC, Owzar K, Corless CL, Hollis D, Borden EC, Fletcher CD, Ryan CW, von Mehren M, Blanke CD, Rankin C, Benjamin RS, Bramwell VH, Demetri GD, Bertagnolli MM, Fletcher JA. Correlation of kinase genotype and clinical outcome in the North American Intergroup Phase III Trial of imatinib mesylate for treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor: CALGB 150105 Study by Cancer and Leukemia Group B and Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 53605367.
  • 2
    Tarn C, Rink L, Merkel E, Flieder D, Pathak H, Koumbi D, Testa JR, Eisenberg B, von Mehren M, Godwin AK. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is a potential therapeutic target for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105: 83878392.
  • 3
    Orfao A, Garcia-Montero AC, Sanchez L, Escribano L; REMA. Recent advances in the understanding of mastocytosis: The role of KIT mutations. Br J Haematol 2007; 138: 1230.
  • 4
    Coffey J, Linger R, Pugh J, Dudakia D, Sokal M, Easton DF, Timothy Bishop D, Stratton M, Huddart R, Rapley EA. Somatic KIT mutations occur predominantly in seminoma germ cell tumors and are not predictive of bilateral disease: Report of 220 tumors and review of literature. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2008; 47: 3442.
  • 5
    Yamaguchi U, Nakayama R, Honda K, Ichikawa H, Hasegawa T, Shitashige M, Ono M, Shoji A, Sakuma T, Kuwabara H, Shimada Y, Sasako M, Shimoda T, Kawai A, Hirohashi S, Yamada T. Distinct gene expression-defined classes of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 41004108.
  • 6
    Tamborini E, Pricl S, Negri T, Lagonigro MS, Miselli F, Greco A, Gronchi A, Casali PG, Ferrone M, Fermeglia M, Carbone A, Pierotti MA, Pilotti S. Functional analyses and molecular modeling of two c-Kit mutations responsible for imatinib secondary resistance in GIST patients. Oncogene 2006; 25: 61406146.
  • 7
    Liegl B, Kepten I, Le C, Zhu M, Demetri GD, Heinrich MC, Fletcher CD, Corless CL, Fletcher JA. Heterogeneity of kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms in GIST. J Pathol 2008; 1: 6474.
  • 8
    Mahadevan D, Cooke L, Riley C, Swart R, Simons B, Della Croce K, Wisner L, Iorio M, Shakalya K, Garewal H, Nagle R, Bearss D. A novel tyrosine kinase switch is a mechanism of imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Oncogene 2007; 26: 39093919.
  • 9
    Hostein I, Faur N, Primois C, Boury F, Denard J, Emile JF, Bringuier PP, Scoazec JY, Coindre JM. BRAF mutation status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 2010; 133: 141148.
  • 10
    Yohay K. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and associated malignancies. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2009; 3: 247253.
  • 11
    Liegl B, Hornick JL, Antonescu CR, Corless CL, Fletcher CD. Rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors after tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: A novel form of tumor progression. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33: 218226.
  • 12
    Debiec-Rychter M, Cools J, Dumez H, Sciot R, Stul M, Mentens N, Vranckx H, Wasag B, Prenen H, Roesel J, Hagemeijer A, Van Oosterom A, Marynen P. Mechanisms of resistance to imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and activity of the PKC412 inhibitor against imatinib-resistant mutants. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 270279.
  • 13
    Miselli FC, Casieri P, Negri T, Orsenigo M, Lagonigro MS, Gronchi A, Fiore M, Casali PG, Bertulli R, Carbone A, Pierotti MA, Tamborini E, Pilotti S. c-Kit/PDGFRA gene status alterations possibly related to primary imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 132: 3692377.
  • 14
    Lorincz A, Redelman D, Horváth VJ, Bardsley MR, Chen H, Ordög T. Progenitors of interstitial cells of Cajal in the postnatal murine stomach. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 10831093.
  • 15
    Alison MR, Islam S. Attributes of adult stem cells. J Pathol 2009; 217: 144160.
  • 16
    Suvà ML, Riggi N, Stehle JC, Baumer K, Tercier S, Joseph JM, Suvà D, Clément V, Provero P, Cironi L, Osterheld MC, Guillou L, Stamenkovic I. Identification of cancer stem cells in Ewing's sarcoma. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 11761781.
  • 17
    Fiore M, Palassini E, Fumagalli E, Pilotti S, Tamborini E, Stacchiotti S, Pennacchioli E, Casali PG, Gronchi A. Preoperative imatinib mesylate for unresectable or locally advanced primary gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST). Eur J Surg 2009; 35: 739745.
  • 18
    Gronchi A, Fiore M, Miselli F, Lgonigro MS, Coco P, Messina A, Pilotti S, Casali PG. Surgery of residual disease following molecular-targeted therapy with Imatinib mesylate in advanced/metastatic GIST. Ann Surg 2007; 245: 341346.
  • 19
    Negri T, Bozzi F, Conca E, Brich S, Gronchi A, Bertulli R, Fumagalli E, Pierotti MA, Tamborini E, Pilotti S. Oncogenic and ligand-dependent activation of KIT/PDGFRA in surgical samples of imatinib-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). J Pathol 2009; 217: 103112.
  • 20
    Greco A, Fusetti L, Miranda C, Villa R, Zanotti S, Pagliardini S, Pierotti MA. Role of the TFG N-terminus and coiled-coil domain in the transforming activity of the thyroid TRK-T3 oncogene. Oncogene 1998; 16: 809816.
  • 21
    Hulspas R, O'Gorman MRG, Wood BL, Gratama JW, Sutherland RD. Consideration for the control of background fluorescence in clinical flow cytometry. Cytometry B (Clin Cytometry) 2009; 76B: 355364.
  • 22
    Workman P, Twentyman P, Balkwill F. United Kingdom co-ordinating Committee on cancer research (UKCCR). Guidelines for the welfare of animals in experimental neoplasia. Br J Cancer 1998; 77: 110.
  • 23
    Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, Jaiswal RK, Douglas R, Mosca JD, Moorman MA, Simonetti DW, Craig S, Marshak DR. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 1999; 284: 143147.
  • 24
    Luksch R, Podda M, Gandola L, Polastri D, Piva L, Castellani R, Collini P, Massimino M, Cefalo G, Terenziani M, Ferrari A, Casanova M, Spreafico F, Meazza C, Bozzi F, Marchiano' A, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F. Stage 4 neuroblastoma: Sequential hemi-body irradiation or highdose chemotherapy plus autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation to consolidate primary treatment. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 19841988.
  • 25
    Schmidt-Arras DE, Böhmer A, Markova B, Choudhary Serve CH, Böhmer FD. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates maturation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Mol Cell Biol 2005; 25: 36903703.
  • 26
    Tabone-Eglinger S, Subra F, El Sayadi H, Alberti L, Tabone E, Michot JP, Théou-Anton N, Lemoine A, Blay JY, Emile JF. KIT mutations induce intracellular retention and activation of an immature form of the KIT protein in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 22852289.
  • 27
    Pozzobon M, Piccoli M, Ditadi A, Bollini S, Destro R, André-Schmutz I, Masiero L, Lenzini E, Zanesco L, Petrelli L, Cavazzana-Calvo M, Gazzola MV, De Coppi P. Mesenchymal stromal cells can be derived from bone marrow CD133+ cells: Implications for therapy. Stem Cells Dev 2009; 3: 497510.
  • 28
    Mearadji A, den Bakker MA, van Geel AN, Eggermont AMM, Sleijfer A, Verweij J, de Witt JHW, Verhoef C. Decrease of CD117 expression as a possible prognostic marker for recurrence in the resected specimen after imatinib treatment in patients with initially unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A clinicopathological analysis. Anti-Cancer Drugs 2008; 19: 607612.
  • 29
    Prenen H, Deroose C, Vermaelen P, Sciot R, Debiec-Rychter M, Stroobants S, Mortelmans L, Schöffski P, Van Oosterom A. Establishment of a mouse gastrointestinal stromal tumour model and evaluation of response to imatinib by small animal positron emission tomography. Anticancer Res 2006; 26: 12471252.
  • 30
    Pantaleo MA, Landuzzi L, Nicoletti G, Nanni C, Boschi S, Piazzi G, Santini D, Di Battista M, Castellucci P, Lodi F, Fanti S, Lollini PL, Biasco G. Advances in preclinical therapeutics development using small animal imaging and molecular analyses: The gastrointestinal stromal tumors model. Clin Exp Med 2009; 9: 199205.
  • 31
    Wardelmann E, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Pauls K, Thomas N, Schildhaus HU, Heinicke T, Speidel N, Pietsch T, Buettner R, Pink D, Reichardt P, Hohenberger P. Polyclonal evolution of multiple secondary KIT mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors under treatment with imatinib mesylate. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12: 17431749.
  • 32
    Agaram NP, Besmer P, Wong GC, Guo T, Socci ND, Maki RG, DeSantis D, Brennan MF, Singer S, DeMatteo RP, Antonescu CR. Pathologic and molecular heterogeneity in imatinib-stable or imatinib-responsive gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 170181.
  • 33
    Heinrich MC, Maki RG, Corless CL, Antonescu CR, Harlow A, Griffith D, Town A, McKinley A, Ou WB, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CD, Huang X, Cohen DP, Baum CM, Demetri GD. Primary and secondary kinase genotypes correlate with the biological and clinical activity of sunitinib in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 53525359.
  • 34
    Ellis LM, Hicklin DJ. Resistance to targeted therapies: Refining anticancer therapy in the era of molecular oncology. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15: 74717478.
  • 35
    Beckett EAH, Ro S, Bayguinov Y, Sanders KM, Ward SM. Kit signaling is essential for development and maintenance of interstitial cells of Cajal and electrical rhythmicity in the embryonic gastrointestinal tract. Dev Dyn 2006; 236: 6072.
  • 36
    Bellodi C, Lidonnici MR, Hamilton A, Helgason GV, Soliera AR, Ronchetti M, Galavotti S, Young KW, Selmi T, Yacobi R, Van Etten RA, Donato N, Hunter A, Dinsdale D, Tirrò E, Vigneri P, Nicotera P, Dyer MJ, Holyoake T, Salomoni P, Calabretta B. Targeting autophagy potentiates tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced cell death in Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells, including primary CML stem cells. J Clin Invest 2009; 119: 11091123.