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LITERATURE CITED

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    Della Porta MG, Malcovati L, Strupp C, Ambaglio I, Kuendgen A, Zipperer E, Travaglino E, Invernizzi R, Pascutto C, Lazzarino M, and others. Risk stratification based on both disease status and extra-hematologic comorbidities in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Haematologica 2011; 96: 441449.
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    Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Cazzola M. Predicting survival and leukemic evolution in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Haematologica 2006; 91: 15881590.
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    Pellagatti A, Cazzola M, Giagounidis AA, Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Killick S, Campbell LJ, Wang L, Langford CF, Fidler C, and others. Gene expression profiles of CD34+ cells in myelodysplastic syndromes: Involvement of interferon-stimulated genes and correlation to FAB subtype and karyotype. Blood 2006; 108: 337345.
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    Pellagatti A, Cazzola M, Giagounidis A, Perry J, Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Jadersten M, Killick S, Verma A, Norbury CJ, and others. Deregulated gene expression pathways in myelodysplastic syndrome hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia 2010; 24: 756764.
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    Mufti GJ, Bennett JM, Goasguen J, Bain BJ, Baumann I, Brunning R, Cazzola M, Fenaux P, Germing U, Hellstrom-Lindberg E, and others. Diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndrome: International Working Group on Morphology of myelodysplastic syndrome (IWGM-MDS) consensus proposals for the definition and enumeration of myeloblasts and ring sideroblasts. Haematologica 2008; 93: 17121717.
  • 17
    Della Porta MG, Malcovati L. Myelodysplastic syndromes with bone marrow fibrosis. Haematologica 2011; 96: 180183.
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    Della Porta MG, Malcovati L, Boveri E, Travaglino E, Pietra D, Pascutto C, Passamonti F, Invernizzi R, Castello A, Magrini U, and others. Clinical relevance of bone marrow fibrosis and CD34-positive cell clusters in primary myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 754762.
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    Malcovati L, Germing U, Kuendgen A, Della Porta MG, Pascutto C, Invernizzi R, Giagounidis A, Hildebrandt B, Bernasconi P, Knipp S, and others. Time-dependent prognostic scoring system for predicting survival and leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 35033510.
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    Craig FE, Foon KA. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping for hematologic neoplasms. Blood 2008; 111: 39413967.
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    Ogata K, Nakamura K, Yokose N, Tamura H, Tachibana M, Taniguchi O, Iwakiri R, Hayashi T, Sakamaki H, Murai Y, and others. Clinical significance of phenotypic features of blasts in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2002; 100: 38873896.
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    Ogata K. Diagnostic flow cytometry for low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes. Hematol Oncol 2008; 26: 193198.
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    van de Loosdrecht AA, Alhan C, Bene MC, Della Porta MG, Drager AM, Feuillard J, Font P, Germing U, Haase D, Homburg CH, and others. Standardization of flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: Report from the first European LeukemiaNet working conference on flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 2009; 94: 11241134.
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    Stetler-Stevenson M, Arthur DC, Jabbour N, Xie XY, Molldrem J, Barrett AJ, Venzon D, Rick ME. Diagnostic utility of flow cytometric immunophenotyping in myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2001; 98: 979987.
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    Wells DA, Benesch M, Loken MR, Vallejo C, Myerson D, Leisenring WM, Deeg HJ. Myeloid and monocytic dyspoiesis as determined by flow cytometric scoring in myelodysplastic syndrome correlates with the IPSS and with outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2003; 102: 394403.
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    van de Loosdrecht AA, Westers TM, Westra AH, Drager AM, van der Velden VH, Ossenkoppele GJ. Identification of distinct prognostic subgroups in low- and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes by flow cytometry. Blood 2008; 111: 10671077.
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    Davis BH, Holden JT, Bene MC, Borowitz MJ, Braylan RC, Cornfield D, Gorczyca W, Lee R, Maiese R, Orfao A, and others. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus recommendations on the flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis of hematolymphoid neoplasia: Medical indications. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2007; 72B ( Suppl 1): S5S13.
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    Stetler-Stevenson M, Davis B, Wood B, Braylan R. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus Conference on Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping of Hematolymphoid Neoplasia. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2007; 72B ( Suppl 1): S3.
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    Wood BL, Arroz M, Barnett D, DiGiuseppe J, Greig B, Kussick SJ, Oldaker T, Shenkin M, Stone E, Wallace P. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus recommendations on the immunophenotypic analysis of hematolymphoid neoplasia by flow cytometry: Optimal reagents and reporting for the flow cytometric diagnosis of hematopoietic neoplasia. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2007; 72B( Suppl 1): S14S22.
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    Satoh C, Dan K, Yamashita T, Jo R, Tamura H, Ogata K. Flow cytometric parameters with little interexaminer variability for diagnosing low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2008; 32: 699707.
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    Kern W, Haferlach C, Schnittger S, Haferlach T. Clinical utility of multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of 1013 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome: Correlation to cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and clinical data. Cancer 2010; 116: 45494563.
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    Matarraz S, Lopez A, Barrena S, Fernandez C, Jensen E, Flores J, Barcena P, Rasillo A, Sayagues JM, Sanchez ML, and others. The immunophenotype of different immature, myeloid and B-cell lineage-committed CD34+ hematopoietic cells allows discrimination between normal/reactive and myelodysplastic syndrome precursors. Leukemia 2008; 22: 11751183.
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    Stachurski D, Smith BR, Pozdnyakova O, Andersen M, Xiao Z, Raza A, Woda BA, Wang SA. Flow cytometric analysis of myelomonocytic cells by a pattern recognition approach is sensitive and specific in diagnosing myelodysplastic syndrome and related marrow diseases: Emphasis on a global evaluation and recognition of diagnostic pitfalls. Leuk Res 2008; 32: 215224.
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    Davis BH, Foucar K, Szczarkowski W, Ball E, Witzig T, Foon KA, Wells D, Kotylo P, Johnson R, Hanson C, and others. U.S.-Canadian Consensus recommendations on the immunophenotypic analysis of hematologic neoplasia by flow cytometry: Medical indications. Cytometry 1997; 30: 249263.
  • 36
    Elghetany MT. Surface marker abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 1998; 83: 11041115.
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    Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Lunghi M, Pascutto C, Vanelli L, Travaglino E, Maffioli M, Bernasconi P, Lazzarino M, Invernizzi R, and others. Flow cytometry evaluation of erythroid and myeloid dysplasia in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia 2005; 19: 776783.
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    McClintock-Treep SA, Briggs RC, Shults KE, Flye-Blakemore LA, Mosse CA, Jagasia MH, Shinar AA, Dupont WD, Stelzer GT, Head DR. Quantitative assessment of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen distinguishes myelodysplastic syndrome from normal bone marrow. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 380385.
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    Vikentiou M, Psarra K, Kapsimali V, Liapis K, Michael M, Tsionos K, Lianidou E, Papasteriades C. Distinct neutrophil subpopulations phenotype by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma 2009; 50: 401409.
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    Truong F, Smith BR, Stachurski D, Cerny J, Medeiros LJ, Woda BA, Wang SA. The utility of flow cytometric immunophenotyping in cytopenic patients with a non-diagnostic bone marrow: A prospective study. Leuk Res 2009; 33: 10391046.
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    Germing U, Strupp C, Kuendgen A, Isa S, Knipp S, Hildebrandt B, Giagounidis A, Aul C, Gattermann N, Haas R. Prospective validation of the WHO proposals for the classification of myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 2006; 91: 15961604.
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    Jadersten M, Malcovati L, Dybedal I, Della Porta MG, Invernizzi R, Montgomery SM, Pascutto C, Porwit A, Cazzola M, Hellstrom-Lindberg E. Erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment associated with improved survival in myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 36073613.
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    List A, Dewald G, Bennett J, Giagounidis A, Raza A, Feldman E, Powell B, Greenberg P, Thomas D, Stone R, and others. Lenalidomide in the myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 14561465.
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    Alessandrino EP, Della Porta MG, Bacigalupo A, Van Lint MT, Falda M, Onida F, Bernardi M, Iori AP, Rambaldi A, Cerretti R, and others. WHO classification and WPSS predict posttransplantation outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: A study from the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Blood 2008; 112: 895902.
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    Scott BL, Wells DA, Loken MR, Myerson D, Leisenring WM, Deeg HJ. Validation of a flow cytometric scoring system as a prognostic indicator for posttransplantation outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2008; 112: 26812686.
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    Maynadie M, Picard F, Husson B, Chatelain B, Cornet Y, Le Roux G, Campos L, Dromelet A, Lepelley P, Jouault H, and others. Immunophenotypic clustering of myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 2002; 100: 23492356.
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    Della Porta MG, Malcovati L, Invernizzi R, Travaglino E, Pascutto C, Maffioli M, Galli A, Boggi S, Pietra D, Vanelli L, and others. Flow cytometry evaluation of erythroid dysplasia in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia 2006; 20: 549555.
  • 48
    Cazzola M, Della Porta MG, Malcovati L. Clinical relevance of anemia and transfusion iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2008: 166175.
  • 49
    Torti FM, Torti SV. Regulation of ferritin genes and protein. Blood 2002; 99: 35053516.
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    Cazzola M, Invernizzi R, Bergamaschi G, Levi S, Corsi B, Travaglino E, Rolandi V, Biasiotto G, Drysdale J, Arosio P. Mitochondrial ferritin expression in erythroid cells from patients with sideroblastic anemia. Blood 2003; 101: 19962000.
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    Ogata K, Satoh C, Hyodo H, Tamura H, Dan K, Yoshida Y. Association between phenotypic features of blasts and the blast percentage in bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2004; 28: 11711175.
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    Ogata K, Yoshida Y. Clinical implications of blast immunophenotypes in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma 2005; 46: 12691274.
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    Westers TM, Alhan C, Chamuleau ME, van der Vorst MJ, Eeltink C, Ossenkoppele GJ, van de Loosdrecht AA. Aberrant immunophenotype of blasts in myelodysplastic syndromes is a clinically relevant biomarker in predicting response to growth factor treatment. Blood 2010; 115: 17791784.
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    Ogata K, Kishikawa Y, Satoh C, Tamura H, Dan K, Hayashi A. Diagnostic application of flow cytometric characteristics of CD34+ cells in low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 2006; 108: 10371044.
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    Sternberg A, Killick S, Littlewood T, Hatton C, Peniket A, Seidl T, Soneji S, Leach J, Bowen D, Chapman C, and others. Evidence for reduced B-cell progenitors in early (low-risk) myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2005; 106: 29822991.
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    Goardon N, Nikolousis E, Sternberg A, Chu WK, Craddock C, Richardson P, Benson R, Drayson M, Standen G, Vyas P, and others. Reduced CD38 expression on CD34+ cells as a diagnostic test in myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 2009; 94: 11601163.
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    Maftoun-Banankhah S, Maleki A, Karandikar NJ, Arbini AA, Fuda FS, Wang HY, Chen W. Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis reveals low percentage of bone marrow hematogones in myelodysplastic syndromes. Am J Clin Pathol 2008; 129: 300308.
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    Ogata K, Della Porta MG, Malcovati L, Picone C, Yokose N, Matsuda A, Yamashita T, Tamura H, Tsukada J, Dan K. Diagnostic utility of flow cytometry in low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes: A prospective validation study. Haematologica 2009; 94: 10661074.
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    Harrington A, Olteanu H, Kroft S. The specificity of immunophenotypic alterations in blasts in nonacute myeloid disorders. Am J Clin Pathol 2010; 134: 749761.