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LITERATURE CITED

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    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1982; 51: 189199.
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    WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); 2008.
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    Mufti GJ, Bennett JM, Goasguen J, Bain BJ, Baumann I, Brunning R, Cazzola M, Fenaux P, Germing U, Hellstrom-Lindberg E, Jinnai I, Manabe A, Matsuda A, Niemeyer CM, Sanz G, Tomonaga M, Vallespi T, Yoshimi A. Diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndrome: International Working Group on Morphology of myelodysplastic syndrome (IWGM-MDS) consensus proposals for the definition and enumeration of myeloblasts and ring sideroblasts. Haematologica 2008; 93: 17121717.
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    Sole F, Luno E, Sanzo C, Espinet B, Sanz GF, Cervera J, Calasanz MJ, Cigudosa JC, Milla F, Ribera JM, Bureo E, Marquez ML, Arranz E, Florensa L. Identification of novel cytogenetic markers with prognostic significance in a series of 968 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 2005; 90: 11681178.
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    Loken MR, van de LA, Ogata K, Orfao A, Wells DA. Flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: Report from a working conference. Leuk Res 2008; 32: 517.
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    Ossenkoppele GJ, van de Loosdrecht AA, Schuurhuis GJ. Review of the relevance of aberrant antigen expression by flow cytometry in myeloid neoplasms. Br J Haematol 2011; 153: 421436.
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    Platzbecker U, Santini V, Mufti GJ, Haferlach C, Maciejewski JP, Park S, Sole F, van de Loosdrecht AA, Haase D. Update on developments in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): Consensus statements and report from an expert workshop. Leuk Res 2012; 36: 264270.
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    Bacher U, Haferlach T, Kern W, Weiss T, Schnittger S, Haferlach C. The impact of cytomorphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunophenotyping in a comprehensive diagnostic workup of myelodysplastic syndromes. Cancer 2009; 115: 45244532.
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    Kern W, Haferlach C, Schnittger S, Haferlach T. Clinical utility of multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of 1013 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome: Correlation to cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and clinical data. Cancer 2010; 116: 45494563.
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    Falco P, Levis A, Stacchini A, Ciriello MM, Geuna M, Notari P, Omede P, Pautasso M, Prato G, Strola G, Gioia D, Bonferroni M, Cametti G, Ferrero D, Freilone R, Gaidano G, Marinone C, Marmont F, Pollio B, Salvi F, Saglio G, Girotto M. Prognostic relevance of cytometric quantitative assessment in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol 2011; 87: 409418.
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    Chu SC, Wang TF, Li CC, Kao RH, Li DK, Su YC, Wells DA, Loken MR. Flow cytometric scoring system as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2011; 35: 868873.
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    Xu F, Li X, Wu L, He Q, Zhang Z, Chang C. Flow cytometric scoring system (FCMSS) assisted diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and the biological significance of FCMSS-based immunophenotypes. Br J Haematol 2010; 149: 587597.
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    Matarraz S, Lopez A, Barrena S, Fernandez C, Jensen E, Flores-Montero J, Rasillo A, Sayagues JM, Sanchez ML, Barcena P, Hernandez-Rivas JM, Salvador C, Fernandez-Mosteirin N, Giralt M, Perdiguer L, Laranjeira P, Paiva A, Orfao A. Bone marrow cells from myelodysplastic syndromes show altered immunophenotypic profiles that may contribute to the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the disease: A pilot study on A series of 56 patients. Cytometry Part B 2010; 78B: 154168.
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    Wells DA, Benesch M, Loken MR, Vallejo C, Myerson D, Leisenring WM, Deeg HJ. Myeloid and monocytic dyspoiesis as determined by flow cytometric scoring in myelodysplastic syndrome correlates with the IPSS and with outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2003; 102: 394403.
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    Briggs RC, Kao WY, Dworkin LL, Briggs JA, Dessypris EN, Clark J. Regulation and specificity of MNDA expression in monocytes, macrophages, and leukemia/B lymphoma cell lines. J Cell Biochem 1994; 56: 559567.
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    Briggs RC, Briggs JA, Ozer J, Sealy L, Dworkin LL, Kingsmore SF, Seldin MF, Kaur GP, Athwal RS, Dessypris EN. The human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen gene is one of at least two related interferon-inducible genes located on chromosome 1q that are expressed specifically in hematopoietic cells. Blood 1994; 83: 21532162.
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    Briggs RC, Shults KE, Flye LA, Clintock-Treep SA, Jagasia MH, Goodman SA, Boulos FI, Jacobberger JW, Stelzer GT, Head DR. Dysregulated human myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen expression in myelodysplastic syndromes: Evidence for a role in apoptosis. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 46454651.
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    Miranda RN, Briggs RC, Shults K, Kinney MC, Jensen RA, Cousar JB. Immunocytochemical analysis of MNDA in tissue sections and sorted normal bone marrow cells documents expression only in maturing normal and neoplastic myelomonocytic cells and a subset of normal and neoplastic B lymphocytes. Hum Pathol 1999; 30: 10401049.
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    Hofmann WK, de Vos S, Komor M, Hoelzer D, Wachsman W, Koeffler HP. Characterization of gene expression of CD34+ cells from normal and myelodysplastic bone marrow. Blood 2002; 100: 35533560.
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    Pradhan A, Mijovic A, Mills K, Cumber P, Westwood N, Mufti GJ, Rassool FV. Differentially expressed genes in adult familial myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia 2004; 18: 449459.
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    McClintock-Treep SA, Briggs RC, Shults KE, Flye-Blakemore LA, Mosse CA, Jagasia MH, Shinar AA, Dupont WD, Stelzer GT, Head DR. Quantitative assessment of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen distinguishes myelodysplastic syndrome from normal bone marrow. Am J Clin Pathol 2011; 135: 380385.
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    Haferlach T, Schoch C, Loffler H, Gassmann W, Kern W, Schnittger S, Fonatsch C, Ludwig WD, Wuchter C, Schlegelberger B, Staib P, Reichle A, Kubica U, Eimermacher H, Balleisen L, Gruneisen A, Haase D, Aul C, Karow J, Lengfelder E, Wormann B, Heinecke A, Sauerland MC, Buchner T, Hiddemann W. Morphologic dysplasia in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is related to unfavorable cytogenetics but has no independent prognostic relevance under the conditions of intensive induction therapy: Results of a multiparameter analysis from the German AML Cooperative Group studies. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 256265.
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    Haferlach T, Winkemann M, Löffler H, Schoch R, Gassmann W, Fonatsch C, Schoch C, Poetsch M, Weber-Matthiesen K, Schlegelberger B. The abnormal eosinophils are part of the leukemic cell population in acute myelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (AML M4Eo) and carry the pericentric inversion 16: A combination of May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Blood 1996; 87: 24592463.
  • 32
    Haferlach T, Kohlmann A, Schnittger S, Dugas M, Hiddemann W, Kern W, Schoch C. AML M3 and AML M3 variant each have a distinct gene expression signature but also share patterns different from other genetically defined AML subtypes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2005; 43: 113127.
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    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Proposal for the recognition of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-MO). Br J Haematol 1991; 78: 325329.
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    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Proposed revised criteria for the classification of acute myeloid leukemia. A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103: 620625.
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    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group. Br J Haematol 1976; 33: 451458.
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    WHO Classification of Tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, 3rd ed. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2001.
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    Schoch C, Kern W, Krawitz P, Dugas M, Schnittger S, Haferlach T, Hiddemann W. Dependence of age-specific incidence of acute myeloid leukemia on karyotype. Blood 2001; 98: 3500.
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    Schoch C, Haferlach T, Bursch S, Gerstner D, Schnittger S, Dugas M, Kern W, Loffler H, Hiddemann W. Loss of genetic material is more common than gain in acute myeloid leukemia with complex aberrant karyotype: A detailed analysis of 125 cases using conventional chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization including 24-color FISH. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2002; 35: 2029.
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    Schoch C, Haferlach T, Haase D, Fonatsch C, Loffler H, Schlegelberger B, Staib P, Sauerland MC, Heinecke A, Buchner T, Hiddemann W. Patients with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia and complex karyotype aberrations show a poor prognosis despite intensive treatment: A study of 90 patients. Br J Haematol 2001; 112: 118126.
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    Haferlach C, Rieder H, Lillington DM, Dastugue N, Hagemeijer A, Harbott J, Stilgenbauer S, Knuutila S, Johansson B, Fonatsch C. Proposals for standardized protocols for cytogenetic analyses of acute leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2007; 46: 494499.
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    Cousar JB, Briggs RC. Expression of human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) in acute leukemias. Leuk Res 1990; 14: 915920.
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    Joshi AD, Hegde GV, Dickinson JD, Mittal AK, Lynch JC, Eudy JD, Armitage JO, Bierman PJ, Bociek RG, Devetten MP, Vose JM, Joshi SS. ATM, CTLA4, MNDA, and HEM1 in high versus low CD38 expressing B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 52955304.
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    Kanellis G, Roncador G, Arribas A, Mollejo M, Montes-Moreno S, Maestre L, Campos-Martin Y, Rios Gonzalez JL, Martinez-Torrecuadrada JL, Sanchez-Verde L, Pajares R, Cigudosa JC, Martin MC, Piris MA. Identification of MNDA as a new marker for nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Leukemia 2009; 23: 18471857.
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    Mittal AK, Hegde GV, Aoun P, Bociek RG, Dave BJ, Joshi AD, Sanger WG, Weisenburger DD, Joshi SS. Molecular basis of aggressive disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with 11q deletion and trisomy 12 chromosomal abnormalities. Int J Mol Med 2007; 20: 461469.
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    van de Loosdrecht AA, Westers TM, Westra AH, Drager AM, van dV V, Ossenkoppele GJ. Identification of distinct prognostic subgroups in low- and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes by flow cytometry. Blood 2008; 111: 10671077.