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LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Hotchkiss RS, Karl IE. The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 138150.
  • 2
    Monneret G, Venet F, Pachot A, Lepape A. Monitoring immune dysfunctions in the septic patient: a new skin for the old ceremony. Mol Med 2008; 14: 6478.
  • 3
    Hotchkiss RS, Opal S. Immunotherapy for sepsis-a new approach against an ancient foe. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 8789.
  • 4
    Docke WD, Randow F, Syrbe U, Krausch D, Asadullah K, Reinke P, Volk HD, Kox W. Monocyte deactivation in septic patients: restoration by IFN-gamma treatment. Nat Med 1997; 3: 678681.
  • 5
    Nakos G, Malamou-Mitsi VD, Lachana A, Karassavoglou A, Kitsiouli E, Agnandi N, Lekka ME. Immunoparalysis in patients with severe trauma and the effect of inhaled interferon-gamma. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 14881494.
  • 6
    Meisel C, Schefold JC, Pschowski R, Baumann T, Hetzger K, Gregor J, Weber-Carstens S, Hasper D, Keh D, Zuckermann H, et al. GM-CSF to reverse sepsis-associated immunosuppression: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;180:640648.
  • 7
    Wolk K, Docke WD, von Baehr V, Volk HD, Sabat R: Impaired antigen presentation by human monocytes during endotoxin tolerance. Blood 2000; 96: 218223.
  • 8
    Monneret G, Lepape A, Voirin N, Bohe J, Venet F, Debard AL, Thizy H, Bienvenu J, Gueyffier F, Vanhems P. Persisting low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression predicts mortality in septic shock. Intensive Care Med 2006; 32: 11751183.
  • 9
    Landelle C, Lepape A, Voirin N, Tognet E, Venet F, Bohe J, Vanhems P, Monneret G. Low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR is independently associated with nosocomial infections after septic shock. Intensive Care Med 2010; 36: 18591866.
  • 10
    Venet F, Tissot S, Debard AL, Faudot C, Crampe C, Pachot A, Ayala A, Monneret G. Decreased monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression after severe burn injury: correlation with severity and secondary septic shock. Crit Care Med 2007; 35: 19101917.
  • 11
    Cheron A, Floccard B, Allaouchiche B, Guignant C, Poitevin F, Malcus C, Crozon J, Faure A, Guillaume C, Marcotte G, et al. Lack of recovery in monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression is independently associated with the development of sepsis after major trauma. Crit Care 2010; 14: R208.
  • 12
    Monneret G, Elmenkouri N, Bohe J, Debard AL, Gutowski MC, Bienvenu J, Lepape A. Analytical requirements for measuring monocytic human lymphocyte antigen DR by flow cytometry: application to the monitoring of patients with septic shock. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 15891592.
  • 13
    Docke WD, Hoflich C, Davis KA, Rottgers K, Meisel C, Kiefer P, Weber SU, Hedwig-Geissing M, Kreuzfelder E, Tschentscher P, et al. Monitoring temporary immunodepression by flow cytometric measurement of monocytic HLA-DR expression: a multicenter standardized study. Clin Chem 2005; 51: 23412347.
  • 14
    Lukaszewicz AC, Grienay M, Resche-Rigon M, Pirracchio R, Faivre V, Boval B, Payen D. Monocytic HLA-DR expression in intensive care patients: interest for prognosis and secondary infection prediction. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 27462752.
  • 15
    Maecker HT, McCoy JP, Jr., Amos M, Elliott J, Gaigalas A, Wang L, Aranda R, Banchereau J, Boshoff C, Braun J, et al. A model for harmonizing flow cytometry in clinical trials. Nat Immunol 2010; 11: 975978.
  • 16
    Venet F, Lepape A, Monneret G. Clinical review: flow cytometry perspectives in the ICU - from diagnosis of infection to monitoring of injury-induced immune dysfunctions. Crit Care 2012; 15: 231.
  • 17
    Jaye DL, Bray RA, Gebel HM, Harris WA, Waller EK. Translational applications of flow cytometry in clinical practice. J Immunol 2012; 188: 47154719.