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LITERATURE CITED

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    Bessler M, Mason PJ, Hillmen P, Miyata T, Yamada N, Takeda J, Luzzatto L, Kinoshita T. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene. EMBO J 1994; 13: 110117.
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    Nicholson-Weller A, March JP, Rosenfeld SI, Austen KF. Affected erythrocytes of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria are deficient in the complement regulatory protein, decay accelerating factor. PNAS 1983; 80: 50665070.
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    Davitz MA, Low MG, Nussenzweig V. Release of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) from the cell membrane by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC). Selective modification of a complement regulatory protein. J Exp Med 1986; 163: 11501161.
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    Rosse WF, Ware RE. The molecular basis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 1995; 86: 32773286.
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    Parker C, Omine M, Richards S, Nishimura J, Bessler M, Ware R, Hillmen P, Luzzatto L, Young N, Kinoshita T, et al. Diagnosis and management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2005; 106: 36993709.
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    Vardiman JW, Thiele J, Arber DA, Brunning RD, Borowitz MJ, Porwit A, Harris NL, Le Beau MM, Hellström-Lindberg E, Tefferi A, et al. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Blood 2009; 114: 937951.
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    Borowitz MJ, Craig FE, DiGiuseppe JA, Illingworth AJ, Rosse W, Sutherland DR, Wittwer CT, Richards SJ. Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and related disorders by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B 2010; 78B: 211230.
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    Sutherland DR, Keeney M, Illingworth A. Practical guidelines for the high-sensitivity detection and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B 2012; 82B: 195208.
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    Kussick SJ, Fromm JR, Rossini A, Li Y, Chang A, Norwood TH, Wood BL. Four-color flow cytometry shows strong concordance with bone marrow morphology and cytogenetics in the evaluation for myelodysplasia. Am J Clin Pathol 2005; 124: 170181.
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    Matarraz S, Lopez A, Barrena S, Fernandez C, Jensen E, Flores J, Barcena P, Rasillo A, Sayagues JM, Sanchez ML, et al. The immunophenotype of different immature, myeloid and B-cell lineage-committed CD34+ hematopoietic cells allows discrimination between normal/reactive and myelodysplastic syndrome precursors. Leukemia 2008; 22: 11751183.
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    van de Loosdrecht AA, Alhan C, Béné MC, Della Porta MG, Dräger AM, Font P, Germing U, Haase D, Homburg CH, Ireland R, et al. Standardization of flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: report from the first European Leukemia Net working conference on flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 2009; 94: 11241134.
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    Della Porta MG, Lanza F, Del Vecchio L. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping for the evaluation of bone marrow dysplasia. Cytometry Part B 2011; 80B: 201211.
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    Mitelman FP. An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Basel: S. Karger; 1995.
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    Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, Fenaux P, Morel P, Sanz G, Sanz M, Vallespi T, Hamblin T, Oscier D, et al. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 1997; 89: 20792088.
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    Owens M, Vall HG, Hurley AA, Wormsley SB. Validation and quality control of immunophenotyping in clinical flow cytometry. J Immunol Met 2000; 243: 3350.
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    Kraan J, Gratama JW, Keeney M, D'Hautcourt JL. Setting up and calibration of a flow cytometer for multicolor immunophenotyping. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2003; 17: 223233.
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    Bieliauskas S, Fine N, Douglas-Nikitin V, Blenc AM. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones are not present in HIV positive patients. Cytometry Part B 2010; 80B: 6467.
  • 21
    Wells DA, Benesch M, Loken MR, Vallejo C, Myerson D, Leisenring WM, Deeg HJ. Myeloid and monocytic dyspoiesis as determined by flow cytometric scoring in myelodysplastic syndrome correlates with the IPSS and with outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 2003; 102: 394403.
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    Wang SA, Pozdnyakova O, Jorgensen JL, Medeiros LJ, Stachurski D, Anderson M, Raza A, Woda BA. Detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and related bone marrow diseases, with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls and caveats. Haematologica 2009; 94( 1): 2937.
  • 23
    Maciejewski JP, Sloand EM, Sato T, Anderson S, Young NS. Impaired hematopoiesis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria/aplastic anemia is not associated with a selective proliferative defect in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-deficient clone. Blood 1997; 89: 11731181.
  • 24
    Karadimitris A, Luzzatto L. The cellular pathogenesis of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Leukemia 2001; 15: 11481152.
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    Elebute MO, Rizzo S, Tooze JA, Marsh JCW, Gordon-Smith EC, Gibson FM. Evaluation of the haemopoietic reservoir in de novo haemolytic paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Br J Haematol 2003; 123: 552560.
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    Chen G, Zeng W, Maciejewski JP, Kcyvanfar K, Billings EM, Young NS. Differential gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients reveals an apoptosis/immune response in ‘normal’ phenotype cells. Leukemia 2005; 19: 862868.
  • 27
    Silverstein RL, Li W, Park YM, Rahaman SO. Mechanisms of cell signaling by the scavenger receptor CD36: implications in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2010; 121: 206220.
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    Kuda O, Jenkins CM, Skinner JR, Moon SH, Su X, Gross RW, Abumrad NA. CD36 is involved in store operated calcium flux, phospholipase A2 activation and production of prostaglandin E2. J Biol Chem 2011; 286: 1778517795.
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    Kozuma Y, Sawahata Y, Takei Y, Chiba S, Ninomiyaet H. Procoagulant properties of microparticles released from red blood cells in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Br J Haematol 2011; 152: 631639.
  • 30
    Luzzatto L, Gianfaldoni G, Notaro R. Management of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: a personal view. Br J Haematol 2011; 153: 709720.