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LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Oni SB, Osunkoya BO, Luzzatto L. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Evidence for monoclonal origin of abnormal red cells. Blood 1970;36:145152.
  • 2
    Moyo VM, Mukhina GL, Garrett ES, Brodsky RA. Natural history of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria using modern diagnostic assays. Br J Haematol 2004;126:133138.
  • 3
    Bessler M, Mason PJ, Hillmen P, Miyata T, Yamada N, Takeda N, Luzzatto L, Kinoshita T. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene. EMBO J 1994;13:110117.
  • 4
    Nafa K, Bessler M, Castro-Malaspina H, Jhanwar S, Luzzatto L. The spectrum of somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria includes large deletions and small duplications. Blood Cells Mol Dis 1998;24:370384.
  • 5
    Parker C, Omine M, Richards S, Nishimura J, Bessler M, Ware R, Hillmen P, Luzzatto L, Young N, Kinoshita T, et al. International PNH Interest Group. Diagnosis and management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2005;106:36993709.
  • 6
    Hillmen P, Lewis SM, Bessler M, Luzzatto L, Dacie JV. Natural history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 1995;333:12531258.
  • 7
    van der Schoot CE, Huizinga TW, van't Veer-Korthof ET, Wijmans R, Pinkster J, von dem Borne AEGK. Deficiency of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane glycoproteins of leukocytes in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, description of a new diagnostic cytofluorometric assay. Blood 1990;76:18531859.
  • 8
    Richards SJ, Rawstron AC, Hillmen P. Application of flow cytometry to the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2000:42:223233.
  • 9
    Oltenao H, Karandikar NJ, McKenna RW, Xu Y. Differential usefulness of various markers in the flow cytometric detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in blood and bone marrow. Am J Clin Pathol 2006;126:781788.
  • 10
    Sutherland DR, Kuek N, Davidson J, Barth D, Chang C, Yeo EL, Bamford S, Chin-Yee IH, Keeney M. Diagnosing PNH with FLAER and multiparameter flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2007:72B:167177.
  • 11
    Hill A, Hillmen P, Richards SJ, Elebute D, Marsh JC, Chan J, Mojcik CF, Rother RP. Sustained response and long-term safety of eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2005;106:25592565.
  • 12
    Hillmen P, Muus P, Duhrsen U, Risitano AM, Schubert J, Luzzatto L, Schrezenmeier H, Szer J, Brodsky RA, Hill A, et al. Effect of the complement inhibitor eculizumab on thromboembolism in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2007;110:41234128.
  • 13
    Hillmen P, Young NS, Schubert J, Brodsky RA, Socie G, Muus P, Roth A, Szer J, Elebute MO, Nakamura R, et al. The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobuniria. N Engl J Med 2006;355:12331243.
  • 14
    Wang SA, Pozdnyakova O, Jorgensen JL, Medeiros LJ, Stachurski D, Anderson M, Raza A, Woda BA. Detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and related bone marrow diseases, with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls and caveats. Haematologica 2009;94:2937.
  • 15
    Galili N, Ravandi F, Palermo G, Bubis J, Illingworth A, Castro-Malaspina H, Raza A. Prevalence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) aplastic anemia (AA) or other bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes: Interim results from the explore trial. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:15s (abstr).
  • 16
    Movalia MK, Illingworth A. Identification and clinical significance of type II granulocytes among patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) identified using multiparameter high sensitivity flow cytometry. Blood 2009;114:3015 (abstr).
  • 17
    Richards SJ, Whitby L, Cullen MJ, Dickinson AJ, Granger V, Reilly JT, Hillmen P, Barnett D. Development and evaluation of a stabilized whole-blood preparation as a process control material for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2008;76B:4755.
  • 18
    Borowitz MJ, Craig FE, DiGiuseppe JA, Illingworth AJ, Rosse W, Sutherland DR, Wittwer CT, Richards SJ; On behalf of the Clinical Cytometry Society. Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and related disorders by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2010;78B:211230.
  • 19
    Sutherland DR, Keeney M, Illingworth A. Practical guidelines for the high-sensitivity detection and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2012;82B:195208.
  • 20
    Marinov I, Luxova A, Tkacova V, Mikulenkova D, Cermak J, Cetkovsky P. Common, standardized and recommended approaches in the diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria using flow cytometry. Vnitr Lek 2012;58:3137.
  • 21
    Richards SJ, Hill A, Hillmen P. Recent advances in the diagnosis, monitoring and management of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Cytometry Part B Clin Cytom 2007;72B:291298.