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LITERATURE CITED

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    Creutzig U, Reinhardt D, Diekamp S, Dworzak M, Stary J, Zimmermann M. AML patients with Down syndrome have a high cure rate with AML-BFM therapy with reduced dose intensity. Leukemia 2005;19:13551360.
  • 3
    Hasle H. Pattern of malignant disorders in individuals with Down's syndrome. Lancet Oncol 2001;2:429436.
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    Pine SR, Guo Q, Yin C, Jayabose S, Druschel CM, Sandoval C. Incidence and clinical implications of GATA1 mutations in newborns with Down syndrome. Blood 2007;110:21282131.
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    Zipursky A. Transient leukaemia--a benign form of leukaemia in newborn infants with trisomy 21. Br J Haematol 2003;120:930938.
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    Gamis AS, Smith FO. Transient myeloproliferative disorder in children with Down syndrome: Clarity to this enigmatic disorder. Br J Haematol 2012;159:277287.
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    Massey GV, Zipursky A, Chang MN, Doyle JJ, Nasim S, Taub JW, Ravindranath Y, Dahl G, Weinstein HJ. A prospective study of the natural history of transient leukemia (TL) in neonates with Down syndrome (DS): Children's Oncology Group (COG) study POG-9481. Blood 2006;107:46064613.
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    Isaacs H Jr. Fetal and neonatal leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2003;25:348361.
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    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Criteria for the diagnosis of acute leukemia of megakaryocyte lineage (M7). A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:460462.
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    Bene MC, Castoldi G, Knapp W, Ludwig WD, Matutes E, Orfao A, van't Veer MB. Proposals for the immunological classification of acute leukemias. European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL). Leukemia 1995;9:17831786.
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    Langebrake C, Creutzig U, Reinhardt D. Immunophenotype of Down syndrome acute myeloid leukemia and transient myeloproliferative disease differs significantly from other diseases with morphologically identical or similar blasts. Klin Padiatr 2005;217:126134.
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    Duchayne E, Fenneteau O, Pages MP, Sainty D, Arnoulet C, Dastugue N, Garand R, Flandrin G. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia: A national clinical and biological study of 53 adult and childhood cases by the Groupe Francais d'Hematologie Cellulaire (GFHC). Leuk Lymphoma 2003;44:4958.
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    Betz SA, Foucar K, Head DR, Chen IM, Willman CL. False-positive flow cytometric platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa expression in myeloid leukemias secondary to platelet adherence to blasts. Blood 1992;79:23992403.
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    Karandikar NJ, Aquino DB, McKenna RW, Kroft SH. Transient myeloproliferative disorder and acute myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome. An immunophenotypic analysis. Am J Clin Pathol 2001;116:204210.
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    Dworzak MN, Fritsch G, Fleischer C, Printz D, Froschl G, Buchinger P, Mann G, Gadner H. Comparative phenotype mapping of normal vs. malignant pediatric B-lymphopoiesis unveils leukemia-associated aberrations. Exp Hematol 1998;26:305313.
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    Nueda A, Lopez-Cabrera M, Vara A, Corbi AL. Characterization of the CD11a (alpha L, LFA-1 alpha) integrin gene promoter. J Biol Chem 1993;268:1930519311.
  • 19
    Kansas GS, Muirhead MJ, Dailey MO. Expression of the CD11/CD18, leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, and CD44 adhesion molecules during normal myeloid and erythroid differentiation in humans. Blood 1990;76:24832492.
  • 20
    Reuss-Borst MA, Buhring HJ, Klein G, Muller CA. Adhesion molecules on CD34+ hematopoietic cells in normal human bone marrow and leukemia. Ann Hematol 1992;65:169174.
  • 21
    Reuss-Borst MA, Klein G, Waller HD, Muller CA. Differential expression of adhesion molecules in acute leukemia. Leukemia 1995;9:869874.
  • 22
    Vardiman JW, Thiele J, Arber DA, Brunning RD, Borowitz MJ, Porwit A, Harris NL, Le Beau MM, Hellstrom-Lindberg E, Tefferi A, et al. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: Rationale and important changes. Blood 2009;114:937951.
  • 23
    Dworzak MN, Gaipa G, Ratei R, Veltroni M, Schumich A, Maglia O, Karawajew L, Benetello A, Potschger U, Husak Z, et al. Standardization of flow cytometric minimal residual disease evaluation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Multicentric assessment is feasible. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2008;74B:331340.
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    Dworzak MN, Fritsch G, Froschl G, Printz D, Gadner H. Four-color flow cytometric investigation of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive lymphoid precursors in pediatric bone marrow: CD79a expression precedes CD19 in early B-cell ontogeny. Blood 1998;92:32033209.
  • 25
    Klusmann JH, Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Dworzak M, Jorch N, Langebrake C, Pekrun A, Macakova-Reinhardt K, Reinhardt D. Treatment and prognostic impact of transient leukemia in neonates with Down syndrome. Blood 2008;111:29912998.
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    Hoffmann MH, Klausen TW, Boegsted M, Larsen SF, Schmitz A, Leinoe EB, Schmiegelow K, Hasle H, Bergmann OJ, Sorensen S, et al. Clinical impact of leukemic blast heterogeneity at diagnosis in cytogenetic intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2012;82B:123131.
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    Merzianu M, Wallace PK. Case study interpretation--Portland: Case 4. Acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage, unclassifiable. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2012;82B:186191.
  • 28
    Rothe G, Schmitz G. Consensus protocol for the flow cytometric immunophenotyping of hematopoietic malignancies. Working Group on Flow Cytometry and Image Analysis. Leukemia 1996;10:877895.
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    Girodon F, Favre B, Couillaud G, Carli PM, Parmeland C, Maynadie M. Immunophenotype of a transient myeloproliferative disorder in a newborn with trisomy 21. Cytometry 2000;42:118122.
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    Zangrando A, Luchini A, Buldini B, Rondelli R, Pession A, Bicciato S, te Kronnie G, Basso G. Immunophenotype signature as a tool to define prognostic subgroups in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 2006;20:888891.
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    Thalhammer-Scherrer R, Mitterbauer G, Simonitsch I, Jaeger U, Lechner K, Schneider B, Fonatsch C, Schwarzinger I. The immunophenotype of 325 adult acute leukemias: Relationship to morphologic and molecular classification and proposal for a minimal screening program highly predictive for lineage discrimination. Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:380389.
  • 32
    Sorrell AD, Alonzo TA, Hilden JM, Gerbing RB, Loew TW, Hathaway L, Barnard D, Taub JW, Ravindranath Y, Smith FO, et al. Favorable survival maintained in children who have myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome using reduced-dose chemotherapy on Children's Oncology Group trial A2971: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer 2012;118:48064814.
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    Loken MR, Alonzo TA, Pardo L, Gerbing RB, Raimondi SC, Hirsch BA, Ho PA, Franklin J, Cooper TM, Gamis AS, et al. Residual disease detected by multidimensional flow cytometry signifies high relapse risk in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: A report from Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2012;120:15811588.
  • 34
    Ito E, Kasai M, Toki T, Arai K, Yokoyama M. Expression of erythroid-specific genes in megakaryoblastic disorders. Leuk Lymphoma 1996;23:545550.
  • 35
    Langebrake C, Creutzig U, Dworzak M, Hrusak O, Mejstrikova E, Griesinger F, Zimmermann M, Reinhardt D. Residual disease monitoring in childhood acute myeloid leukemia by multiparameter flow cytometry: The MRD-AML-BFM Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:36863692.
  • 36
    van der Velden VH, van der Sluijs-Geling A, Gibson BE, te Marvelde JG, Hoogeveen PG, Hop WC, Wheatley K, Bierings MB, Schuurhuis GJ, de Graaf SS, et al. Clinical significance of flowcytometric minimal residual disease detection in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients treated according to the DCOG ANLL97/MRC AML12 protocol. Leukemia 2010;24:15991606.