We sought to determine whether adults with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) who respond to intensive exposure and response (ritual) prevention (EX/RP) with or without clomipramine (CMI) fare better 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation than responders receiving CMI alone. After receiving 12 weeks of treatment (EX/RP, CMI, EX/RP+CMI, or pill placebo [PBO] in a randomized clinical trial conducted at three outpatient research centers), 46 adults with OCD who responded to treatment (18 EX/RP, 11 CMI, 15 EX/RP+CMI, 2 PBO) were followed after treatment discontinuation for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed every 4 weeks with the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale, the National Institutes of Health Global Obsessive–Compulsive Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale by an evaluator who was blind to original treatment assignment. The primary hypothesis was that EX/RP and EX/RP+CMI responders would be less likely to relapse 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation than responders to CMI alone. Twelve weeks after treatment discontinuation, EX/RP and EX/RP+CMI responders, compared to CMI responders, had a significantly lower relapse rate (4/33=12% versus 5/11=45%) and a significantly longer time to relapse. The CMI relapse rate was lower than previously reported. Nonetheless, responders receiving intensive EX/RP with or without CMI fared significantly better 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation than responders receiving CMI alone. Depression and Anxiety 00:000–000, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.