This article is a US Government work and, as such is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: meaningful distinction or useless duplication?†
Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2006
This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Published in 2006 by Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 25, Issue 1, pages 8–19, January 2008
How to Cite
Chambless, D. L., Fydrich, T. and Rodebaugh, T. L. (2008), Generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: meaningful distinction or useless duplication?. Depress. Anxiety, 25: 8–19. doi: 10.1002/da.20266
- Issue online: 22 JAN 2008
- Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 SEP 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 21 JUL 2006
- Manuscript Received: 17 JAN 2006
- National Institute of Mental Health. Grant Number: R03-47968
- Advanced Council for Learned Societies and German Academic Exchange
- Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Study Center
- Latané Fund of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
- 1989. Short-term structured treatment for avoidant personality disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 57:756–764. .
- 2002. Avoidant personality disorder: Current status and future directions. J Pers Disord 16:1–29. , , , .
- 1984. Cluster analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. , .
- 1997. Social phobia, avoidant personality disorder and atypical depression: Co-occurrence and clinical implications. Psychol Med 27:627–633. , , , , , , , , .
- American Psychiatric Association. 1980. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Author.
- American Psychiatric Association. 1987. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author.
- American Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.
- 1999. Do personality disorders exist?: On the validity of the concept and its cognitive-behavioral formulation and treatment. Behav Res Ther 37:S97–S134. .
- 1988a. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 56:893–897. , , , .
- 1987. Manual for the revised Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. , .
- 1990. Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. , .
- 1988b. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev 8:77–100. , , .
- 1989b. The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: Concurrent validity in a clinic sample. Behav Res Ther 27:573–576. , , , .
- 1989a. Assessment of social phobia: Reliability of an impromptu speech task. J Anxiety Disord 3:149–158. , , , .
- 1989c. The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: Concurrent and external validity. Behav Ther 20:417–427. , , , .
- 1999. Multimodal comparisons of social phobia subtypes and avoidant personality disorder. J Anxiety Disord 13:271–292. , , , , , , .
- 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. .
- 2003. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. , , , .
- 1985. The measurement of self esteem: Refining our methods. J Pers Soc Psychol 48:1490–1502. .
- 1992. The Brief Symptom Inventory: Administration, scoring and procedures manual—II. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometric Research. .
- 1988. Evaluation of the Social Interaction Self-Statement Test with a social phobic population. Cognitive Ther Res 12:211–222. , , , .
- 1978. Test-taking and stability of adjustment scales. Evaluation Q 2:275–291. , , , , .
- 1993. Cluster analysis. New York: Wiley. .
- 1995. Personality traits in social phobia: I. Comparisons with healthy controls. J Clin Psychiatry 56:560–573. .
- 1996. Avoidant personality disorder as a predictor for treatment outcome among generalized social phobics. J Pers Disord 10:174–184. , , , , .
- 1997. Structured Clinical Inteview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. , , , .
- 1998. Behavioral assessment of social performance: A rating system for social phobia. Behav Res Ther 36:995–1010. , , , , .
- 1992. Reliability and validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. J Anxiety Disord 6:55–61. , , .
- 1982. Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire. Cogn Ther Res 6:37–55. , , , .
- 1983. Social phobia. Br J Psychiatry 143:526–527. , .
- 1993. The issue of subtypes in the diagnosis of social phobia. J Anxiety Disord 7:249–269. , , , , .
- 1990. DSM-III-R subtypes of social phobia: Comparison of generalized social phobics and public speaking phobics. J Nerv Ment Dis 178:172–179. , , , .
- 1992. Validity of the distinction between generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 101:332–339. , , .
- 1992. Avoidant personality disorder and the generalized subtype of social phobia. J Abnorm Psychol 101:318–325. , , .
- 1994. Personality disorders and features in social phobia and panic disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 103:391–395. , , , .
- 1986. Social Reticence Scale: A measure of shyness. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. , .
- 1986. Shyness: Conceptualization and measurement. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:629–639. , , .
- 2004. The long shadow of temperament. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press. , .
- 2001. Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. J Abnorm Psychol 110:40–48. , .
- 1981. Disorders of personality. New York: Wiley. .
- 1991. Avoidant personality disorder: A brief review of issues and data. J Pers Disord 5:353–362. .
- 1996. Avoidant personality disorder. In: WidigerT, FrancesAJ, PincusHA, RossR, FirstMB, DavisW, KlineM, editors. DSM-IV sourcebook. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. p 757–765. .
- 1988. Personality disorders in DWMIII and DSM-III-R: Convergence, coverage, and internal consistency. Am J Psychiatry 145:573–577. .
- 1999. Avoidant personality in social phobia and panic-agoraphobic disorder: A comparison. J Affect Disord 54:277–282. , , , , , , .
- 1999. Rates of personality disorders in substance abusers: A comparison between DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. J Pers Disord 13:375–384. , , , , , .
- 2005. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: Distinct enough to be separate disorders? Acta Psychiatr Scand 112:208–214. , , , , , , , , , .
- 1992. Prevalence of SCID-diagnosed personality disorders in agoraphobic outpatients. J Anxiety Disord 6:111–118. , , .
- 1999. Convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Depress Anxiety 11:10–14. , , , , .
- 1969. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. .
- 1979. Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books. .
- 1991. The relationship of social phobia subtypes and avoidant personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry 32:496–502. , , , , .
- 1965. Self esteem: Clinical assessment and measurement validation. Psychol Rep 16:1017–1071. , .
- 1989. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R—Patient Version. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute. , , , .
- 1992. SCID-Ro, Version 2.0: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Revised for use in Hoffman-LaRoche Moclobemide Anxiety Disorders Program. Anxiety Disorders Research Program, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. , , , .
- 2001. Differences in DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses in eating disorder patients. Compr Psychiatry 42:448–455. , , , , , .
- 1995. Avoidant personality disorder. In: GabbardGO, editor. Treatment of psychiatric disorders: Personality disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. p 2345–2353. , .
- 2002. Is avoidant personality disorder more than just social avoidance? J Pers Disord 18:571–594. , , .
- 1995. Psychopathology of social phobia: Effects of subtype and of avoidant personality disorder. J Anxiety Disord 9:489–501. , .
- 1978. Social skills and mental health. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. , , .
- 1986. Psychopathology of social phobia and comparison to avoidant personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 95:389–394. , , , .
- 1989. An empirically derived inventory to measure social fears and anxiety: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Psychol Assess 1:35–40. , , , .
- 1984. Effects of race on ratings of social skill. J Consult Clin Psychol 52:474–475. , , , .
- 1992. Social phobia: A comparison of specific and generalized subtypes and avoidant personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 101:326–331. , , .
- 1987. Validity of the Social Avoidance and Distress and Fear of Negative Evaluation scales. Behav Res Ther 25:113–115. , , .
- 1997. Special feature: Extent of comorbidity between mental state and personality disorders. J Pers Disord 11:242–259. , , , .
- 2000. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder: Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. J Anxiety Disord 14:395–411. , , .
- 1998. Multivariate taxometric procedures: Distinguishing types from continua. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. , .
- 1969. Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol 33:448–457. , .
- 1976. Assessment of social adjustment by patient self-report. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1111–1115. , .
- 1978. Social adjustment by self-report in a community sample and in psychiatric outpatients. J Nerv Ment Dis 166:317–326. , , .
- 1992. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder: A commentary on three studies. J Abnorm Psychol 101:340–343. .