This article is a US Government copyright and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Diversity of effective treatments of panic attacks: what do they have in common?†
Article first published online: 11 SEP 2009
This article is a US Government work and as such, in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 27, Issue 1, pages 5–11, January 2010
How to Cite
Roth, W. T. (2010), Diversity of effective treatments of panic attacks: what do they have in common?. Depress. Anxiety, 27: 5–11. doi: 10.1002/da.20601
- Issue published online: 30 DEC 2009
- Article first published online: 11 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 JUL 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 12 JUN 2009
- Manuscript Received: 26 MAY 2009
- DNational Institutes of Health. Grant Number: MH066953-01
- Department of Veterans Affairs. Grant Number: ROT0042825
- panic disorder;
- psychological theory;
- mind-body therapies;
- cognitive behavioral therapy;
- placebo effect;
By comparing efficacious psychological therapies of different kinds, inferences about common effective treatment mechanisms can be made. We selected six therapies for review on the basis of the diversity of their theoretical rationales and evidence for superior efficacy: psychoanalytic psychotherapy, hypercapnic breathing training, hypocapnic breathing training, reprocessing with and without eye-movement desensitization, muscle relaxation, and cognitive behavior therapy. The likely common element of all these therapies is that they reduce the immediate expectancy of a panic attack, disrupting the vicious circle of fearing fear. Modifying expectation is usually regarded as a placebo mechanism in psychotherapy, but may be a specific treatment mechanism for panic. The fact that this is seldom the rationale communicated to the patient creates a moral dilemma: Is it ethical for therapists to mislead patients to help them? Pragmatic justification of a successful practice is a way out of this dilemma. Therapies should be evaluated that deal with expectations directly by promoting positive thinking or by fostering non-expectancy. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.