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Keywords:

  • anxiety;
  • comorbidity;
  • first-degree relatives;
  • second-degree relatives;
  • logistic regression;
  • survival analysis

Abstract

Objective: This study examined the comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a family study of OCD with pediatric probands. Method: This study assessed the lifetime prevalence of MDD in 141 first-degree relatives (FDR) and 452 second-degree relatives (SDR) of pediatric probands with OCD and healthy controls, and identified variables associated with MDD in case FDR. All available FDR were directly interviewed blind to proband status; parents were also interviewed to assess the family psychiatric history of FDR and SDR. Best-estimate diagnoses were made using all sources of information. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and robust Cox regression models. Results: Lifetime MDD prevalence was significantly higher in case than in control FDR (30.4 versus 15.4%). Lifetime MDD prevalence was significantly higher in FDR of case probands with MDD than in FDR of case probands without MDD or control FDR (46.3 versus 19.7 versus 15.4%, respectively). MDD in case FDR was significantly associated with MDD in case probands and with age and OCD in those relatives. Lifetime MDD prevalence was similar in case and control SDR. However, lifetime MDD prevalence was significantly higher in SDR of case probands with MDD than in SDR of case probands without MDD or control SDR (31.9 versus 16.8 versus 15.4%, respectively). Conclusions: MDD prevalence was significantly higher in both FDR and SDR of case probands with MDD than in relatives of case probands without MDD or control relatives, suggesting that pediatric OCD comorbid with MDD is a complex familial syndrome. Depression and Anxiety, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.