Conflict of interests: None.
ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HOUSEHOLD AND NEIGHBORHOOD INCOME AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS
Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 29, Issue 9, pages 824–832, September 2012
How to Cite
Vine, M., Stoep, A. V., Bell, J., Rhew, I. C., Gudmundsen, G. and McCauley, E. (2012), ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HOUSEHOLD AND NEIGHBORHOOD INCOME AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS. Depress. Anxiety, 29: 824–832. doi: 10.1002/da.21948
Contract grant sponsor: National Institutes of Mental Health and Drug Abuse Contract grant number: R01 MH63711. Contract grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health; Contract grant number: T32 HD052462
- Issue published online: 4 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 20 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 6 APR 2011
- National Institutes of Mental Health and Drug Abuse. Grant Number: R01 MH63711
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Number: T32 HD052462
- child and adolescent anxiety;
- residence characteristics;
- socioeconomic position;
A better understanding of the role of both family- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics in the development of anxiety disorders is important for identifying salient target populations for intervention efforts. Little research has examined the question of whether associations between anxiety and socioeconomic status (SES) differ depending upon the level at which SES is measured or way in which anxiety manifests. We studied associations between both household- and neighborhood-level income and four different manifestations of anxiety in a community sample of young adolescents.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data on 498 subjects aged 11–13 from a cohort study of Seattle-area middle school students. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between both annual household income and neighborhood median income and each of four anxiety subscale scores from the multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): physical symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic anxiety.
A negative association was found between household income and scores on two of the four MASC subscales—physical symptoms and separation/panic anxiety. In contrast, at equivalent levels of household income, adolescents living in higher income neighborhoods reported higher physical and harm avoidance symptom scores.
The role that SES plays in the development of childhood anxiety appears to be complex and to differ depending on the specific type of anxiety that is manifest and whether income is evaluated at the household or neighborhood level.