INSECURE ATTACHMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIOUS SYMPTOMOLOGY
The authors disclose the following financial relationships within the past 3 years: Contract grant sponsor: National Natural Science Foundation of China; Contract grant numbers: 81071097; 81000590.
Correspondence to: Zhu Xiongzhao, Medical Psychological Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 410011, China.
Most studies have shown that insecure attachment and stress are important risk factors in the development of depression and anxiety. However, it is unclear whether distinct patterns of insecure attachment may relate differently to depression and anxiety following stressful events. Thus, the current study examined whether anxious and avoidant attachment, both of which are operationalized as insecure attachment, predict depressive and anxious symptoms following the occurrence of hassles.
A sample of 662 Chinese university students was recruited from Hunan, China. At the initial assessment, participants completed self-report measures assessing insecure attachment (i.e. anxious and avoidant attachment), hassles, anxious symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Additionally, hassles and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed once a month for the subsequent 6 months.
The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated a significant interaction between anxious attachment and hassles in predicting follow-up depressive symptoms. Specifically, participants with high levels of anxious, but not avoidant, attachment reported high levels of depressive symptoms when experiencing high, as opposed to low, levels of hassles. At the same time, while both anxious and avoidant attachment predicted higher levels of anxious symptoms over time, a cross-level, significant interaction did not emerge.
Insecure attachment styles serve as a vulnerability factor in the development of depressive and anxious symptoms in Chinese young adults. Consequently, fostering the development of secure attachment in prevention and intervention programs may, ultimately, prevent the onset and maintenance of depressive and anxious disorders. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–8, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.