MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO METHAMPHETAMINE: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL FINDINGS FROM THE INFANT DEVELOPMENT, ENVIRONMENT, AND LIFESTYLE (IDEAL) STUDY
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 29, Issue 6, pages 515–522, June 2012
How to Cite
Smith, L. M., Paz, M. S., LaGasse, L. L., Derauf, C., Newman, E., Shah, R., Arria, A., Huestis, M. A., Haning, W., Strauss, A., Della Grotta, S., Dansereau, L. M., Neal, C. and Lester, B. M. (2012), MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO METHAMPHETAMINE: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL FINDINGS FROM THE INFANT DEVELOPMENT, ENVIRONMENT, AND LIFESTYLE (IDEAL) STUDY. Depress. Anxiety, 29: 515–522. doi: 10.1002/da.21956
- Issue published online: 21 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 7 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 8 NOV 2011
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Grant Number: R01DA014948
- National Center on Research Resources. Grant Numbers: UL1RR033176, P20 RR11091, CTSI #1UL 1RR0033176
Maternal depression is associated with a higher incidence of behavioral problems in infants, but the effects of maternal depression as early as 1 month are not well characterized. The objective of this study is to determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depression on infants exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS).
Four hundred twelve mother–infant pairs were enrolled (MA = 204) and only biological mothers with custody of their child were included in the current analysis. At the 1-month visit (n = 126 MA-exposed; n = 193 MA-unexposed), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered, and the NNNS was administered to the infant. Exposure was identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in newborn meconium. Unexposed subjects were matched, denied amphetamine use, and had negative meconium screens. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS, with significance accepted at P < .05.
The MA group had an increased incidence of depression-positive diagnosis and increased depression scores on the BDI-II. After adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with increased arousal and handling scores, and a decreased ability to self-regulate. Maternal depression was associated with higher autonomic stress and poorer quality of movement. No additional differences were observed in infants whose mothers were both depressed and used MA during pregnancy.
Maternal depression is associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of increased stress and decreased quality of movement, suggesting maternal depression influences neurodevelopment in infants as young as 1 month.?vsp 5pt?>