Contract grant sponsor: American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fellowship; Contract grant number: 121911-PF-12–040-01-CPPB; Contract grant sponsor: Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Pelotonia Postdoctoral Fellowship; Contract grant sponsor: National Cancer Institute Research Supplement to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research; Contract grant number: CA126857; Contract grant sponsor: NIH; Contract grant numbers: CA131029, CA126857, CA154054, and AG029562.
SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STRESS, DEPRESSION, AND TROUBLED RELATIONSHIPS: INSIGHTS FROM PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY
Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 30, Issue 4, pages 288–296, April 2013
How to Cite
Jaremka, L. M., Lindgren, M. E. and Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2013), SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STRESS, DEPRESSION, AND TROUBLED RELATIONSHIPS: INSIGHTS FROM PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY. Depress. Anxiety, 30: 288–296. doi: 10.1002/da.22078
- Issue published online: 10 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 7 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 10 SEP 2012
- American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fellowship. Grant Number: 121911-PF-12–040-01-CPPB
- Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
- National Cancer Institute Research Supplement to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research. Grant Number: CA126857
- NIH. Grant Numbers: CA131029, CA126857, CA154054, AG029562
- biological markers;
- life events/stress;
- interpersonal relationships;
Stress and depression consistently elevate inflammation and are often experienced simultaneously, which is exemplified by people in troubled relationships. Troubled relationships also elevate inflammation, which may be partially explained by their ability to engender high levels of stress and depression. People who are stressed, depressed, or in troubled relationships are also at greater risk for health problems than their less distressed counterparts. Inflammation, a risk factor for a variety of age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and frailty, may be one key mechanistic pathway linking distress to poor health. Obesity may further broaden the health implications of stress and depression; people who are stressed or depressed are often overweight, and adipose tissue is a major source of proinflammatory cytokines. Stress, depression, and troubled relationships may have synergistic inflammatory effects: loneliness, subclinical depression, and major depression enhance inflammatory responses to an acute stressful event. The relationship between distress and inflammation is bidirectional; depression enhances inflammation and inflammation promotes depression. Interesting questions emerge from this literature. For instance, some stressors may be more potent than others and thus may be more strongly linked to inflammation. In addition, it is possible that psychological and interpersonal resources may buffer the negative inflammatory effects of stress. Understanding the links among stress, depression, troubled relationships, and inflammation is an exciting area of research that may provide mechanistic insight into the links between distress and poor health.