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COMPLICATED GRIEF SYMPTOMS IN ANXIETY DISORDERS: PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED IMPAIRMENT
Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Depression and Anxiety
Volume 30, Issue 12, pages 1211–1216, December 2013
How to Cite
Marques, L., Bui, E., LeBlanc, N., Porter, E., Robinaugh, D., Dryman, M. T., Nadal-Vicens, M., Worthington, J. and Simon, N. (2013), COMPLICATED GRIEF SYMPTOMS IN ANXIETY DISORDERS: PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED IMPAIRMENT. Depress. Anxiety, 30: 1211–1216. doi: 10.1002/da.22093
- Issue online: 2 DEC 2013
- Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 10 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 17 SEP 2012
- Highland Street Foundation
- National Institute of Mental Health
- Massachusetts General Hospital Psychiatry Academy
- Laboratoires Servier
- Current Psychiatry
- Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
- Falcon Reviews
- Merck and Pfizer
- American Foundation for Suicide Prevention
- Forest Laboratories
- American Cancer Society
- Glaxo SmithKline
- MGH Psychiatry Academy
- Complicated grief;
- quality of life
Previous research has identified high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders among individuals presenting with primary CG. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of comorbid CG in bereaved primary anxiety disorder (AD) patients compared to bereaved healthy controls. We also examined the impairment associated with comorbid CG in AD.
Participants were 242 bereaved adults (mean (SD) age = 41.5 (13.1), 44.2% women) with a primary AD diagnosis, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 57), panic disorder (PD; n = 49), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 29), and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD; n = 107), as well as 155 bereaved healthy controls with no current DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (mean (SD) age = 43.0 (13.6), 51.0% women). CG symptoms were measured using the 19-item inventory of complicated grief (ICG), with threshold CG defined as an ICG score of ≥30. Quality of life and functional impairment were assessed with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT), respectively.
Participants with primary ADs had significantly higher rates of threshold CG symptoms than bereaved controls (12.0% vs. 0.65%; Fisher's Exact P < 0.001). Rates of threshold CG were significantly elevated for each AD when compared to bereaved controls. After adjustment for age, sex, education, and comorbid major depressive disorder, threshold CG was associated with lower quality of life (β = −0.140, P = 0.023) and greater impairment (β = 0.141, P = 0.035) among individuals with AD.
Our findings suggest that threshold CG is of clinical relevance in bereaved individuals with a primary anxiety disorder. Screening for CG in patients with ADs may be warranted.