SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Rao U. Links between depression and substance abuse in adolescents: neurobiological mechanisms. Am J Prevent Med 2006;31(6 Suppl 1):S161S174. Epub 2006/12/19.
  • 2
    Farrell M, Howes S, Bebbington P, et al. Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Results of a national household survey. Br J Psychiatry 2001;179:432437. Epub 2001/11/02.
  • 3
    Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, et al. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61(8):807816. Epub 2004/08/04.
  • 4
    Rubino T, Zamberletti E, Parolaro D. Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. J Psychopharmacol 2012;26(1):177188. Epub 2011/07/20.
  • 5
    Davey Smith G, Phillips AN, Neaton JD. Smoking as “independent” risk factor for suicide: illustration of an artifact from observational epidemiology? Lancet 1992;340(8821):709712. Epub 1992/09/19.
  • 6
    Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. Data dredging, bias, or confounding. BMJ 2002;325(7378):14371438. Epub 2002/12/21.
  • 7
    Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1991;20(1):4763. Epub 1991/01/01.
  • 8
    Beral V, Banks E, Reeves G. Evidence from randomised trials on the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy. Lancet 2002;360(9337):942944. Epub 2002/10/02.
  • 9
    Rutter M, working group A. Identifying the environmental causes of disease: how should we decide what to believe and how to take action? Acad Med Sci 2007.
  • 10
    Tsuang MT, Francis T, Minor K, Thomas A, Stone WS. Genetics of smoking and depression. Hum Gen 2012;131(6):905915. Epub 2012/04/25.
  • 11
    Markou A, Kosten TR, Koob GF. Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998;18(3):135174. Epub 1998/02/21.
  • 12
    Rose JE, Behm FM, Ramsey C, Ritchie JC, Jr. Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine Tob Res 2001;3(4):383390. Epub 2001/11/06.
  • 13
    Saal D, Dong Y, Bonci A, Malenka RC. Drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common synaptic adaptation in dopamine neurons. Neuron 2003;37(4):577582.
  • 14
    Kapur S, Mizrahi R, Li M. From dopamine to salience to psychosis—linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2005;79(1):5968. Epub 2005/07/12.
  • 15
    Laje RP, Berman JA, Glassman AH. Depression and nicotine: preclinical and clinical evidence for common mechanisms. Curr Psychiatr Rep 2001;3(6):470474. Epub 2001/11/15.
  • 16
    Djuric VJ, Dunn E, Overstreet DH, Dragomir A, Steiner M. Antidepressant effect of ingested nicotine in female rats of Flinders resistant and sensitive lines. Physiol Behav 1999;67(4):533537. Epub 1999/11/05.
  • 17
    Vazquez-Palacios G, Bonilla-Jaime H, Velazquez-Moctezuma J. Antidepressant effects of nicotine and fluoxetine in an animal model of depression induced by neonatal treatment with clomipramine. Progress Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005;29(1):3946. Epub 2004/12/22.
  • 18
    Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Nat Neurosci 2010;13(10):11611169. Epub 2010/09/30.
  • 19
    Salin-Pascual RJ, de la Fuente JR, Galicia-Polo L, Drucker-Colin R. Effects of transderman nicotine on mood and sleep in nonsmoking major depressed patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995;121(4):476479. Epub 1995/10/01.
  • 20
    Salin-Pascual RJ, Rosas M, Jimenez-Genchi A, Rivera-Meza BL, Delgado-Parra V. Antidepressant effect of transdermal nicotine patches in nonsmoking patients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57(9):387389. Epub 1996/09/01.
  • 21
    Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. What can Mendelian randomisation tell us about modifiable behavioural and environmental exposures? BMJ 2005;330(7499):10761079. Epub 2005/05/10.
  • 22
    Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. ‘Mendelian randomization’: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? Int J Epidemiol 2003;32(1):122. Epub 2003/04/12.
  • 23
    Davey Smith G. Mendelian randomization for strengthening causal inference in observational studies: application to gene x environment interactions. Perspect Psychol Sci 2010;5(5):527545.
  • 24
    Davey Smith G, Lawlor DA, Harbord R, Timpson N, Day I, Ebrahim S. Clustered environments and randomized genes: a fundamental distinction between conventional and genetic epidemiology. Plos Med 2007;4(12):e352. Epub 2007/12/14.
  • 25
    Davey Smith G. Use of genetic markers and gene-diet interactions for interrogating population-level causal influences of diet on health. Genes Nutr 2011;6(1):2743. Epub 2011/03/26.
  • 26
    Sheehan NA, Didelez V, Burton PR, Tobin MD. Mendelian randomisation and causal inference in observational epidemiology. Plos Med 2008;5(8):e177. Epub 2008/08/30.
  • 27
    Koopmans JR, Slutske WS, Heath AC, Neale MC, Boomsma DI. The genetics of smoking initiation and quantity smoked in Dutch adolescent and young adult twins. Behav Gen 1999;29(6):383393. Epub 2000/06/17.
  • 28
    Li MD, Cheng R, Ma JZ, Swan GE. A meta-analysis of estimated genetic and environmental effects on smoking behavior in male and female adult twins. Addiction 2003;98(1):2331. Epub 2002/12/21.
  • 29
    Saccone SF, Hinrichs AL, Saccone NL, et al. Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713 SNPs. Human Mol Gen 2007;16(1):3649. Epub 2006/12/01.
  • 30
    Thorgeirsson TE, Geller F, Sulem P, et al. A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. Nature 2008;452(7187):638642. Epub 2008/04/04.
  • 31
    Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Surakka I, et al. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. Nat Gen 2010;42(5):448453. Epub 2010/04/27.
  • 32
    Timofeeva MN, McKay JD, Smith GD, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011;20(10):22502261. Epub 2011/08/25.
  • 33
    Munafo MR, Timofeeva MN, Morris RW, et al. Association between genetic variants on chromosome 15q25 locus and objective measures of tobacco exposure. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104(10):740748. Epub 2012/04/27.
  • 34
    Ware JJ, van den Bree M, Munafo MR. From men to mice: CHRNA5/CHRNA3, smoking behavior and disease. Nicotine Tob Res 2012;14(11):12911299. Epub 2012/05/01.
  • 35
    Freathy RM, Ring SM, Shields B, et al. A common genetic variant in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) is associated with a reduced ability of women to quit smoking in pregnancy. Hum Mol Gen 2009;18(15):29222927. Epub 2009/05/12.
  • 36
    Munafo MR, Johnstone EC, Walther D, Uhl GR, Murphy MF, Aveyard P. CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype and short-term smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 2011;13(10):982988. Epub 2011/06/22.
  • 37
    Fowler CD, Lu Q, Johnson PM, Marks MJ, Kenny PJ. Habenular alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunit signalling controls nicotine intake. Nature 2011;471(7340):597601. Epub 2011/02/01.
  • 38
    Consortium TG. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. Nat Gen 2010;42(5):441447. Epub 2010/04/27.
  • 39
    Freathy RM, Kazeem GR, Morris RW, et al. Genetic variation at CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 interacts with smoking status to influence body mass index. Int J Epidemiol 2011;40(6):16171628. Epub 2011/05/20.
  • 40
    Lewis SJ, Araya R, Smith GD, et al. Smoking is associated with, but does not cause, depressed mood in pregnancy—a Mendelian randomization study. PLoS One 2011;6(7):e21689. Epub 2011/08/06.
  • 41
    Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:782786. Epub 1987/06/01.
  • 42
    Bjorngaard JH, Gunnell D, Elvestad MB, et al. The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study. Psychol Med 2012:19. Epub 2012/06/13.
  • 43
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica 1983;67(6):361370. Epub 1983/06/01.
  • 44
    Timpson NJ, Nordestgaard BG, Harbord RM, et al. C-reactive protein levels and body mass index: elucidating direction of causation through reciprocal Mendelian randomization. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011;35(2):300308. Epub 2010/08/18.
  • 45
    Richmond R, Davey Smith G, Ness AR, den Hoed M, McMahon G, Timpson NJ. Higher adiposity reduces physical activity levels in children: a Mendelian randomization analysis. Plos Med, under review.
  • 46
    Ripke S, Wray NR, Lewis CM, et al. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2013;18(4):497511. Epub 2012/04/05.
  • 47
    Verweij KJ, Zietsch BP, Lynskey MT, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: a meta-analysis of twin studies. Addiction 2010;105(3):417430. Epub 2010/04/21.
  • 48
    Pierce BL, VanderWeele TJ. The effect of non-differential measurement error on bias, precision and power in Mendelian randomization studies. Int J Epidemiol 2012;41(5):13831393. Epub 2012/10/10.
  • 49
    Timpson NJ, Sayers A, Davey-Smith G, Tobias JH. How does body fat influence bone mass in childhood? A Mendelian randomization approach. J Bone Miner Res 2009;24(3):522533. Epub 2008/11/20.
  • 50
    Lee S, Wright FA, Zou F. Control of population stratification by correlation-selected principal components. Biometrics 2011;67(3):967974. Epub 2010/12/08.
  • 51
    Rodriguez S, Gaunt TR, Day IN. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing of biological ascertainment for Mendelian randomization studies. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169(4):505514. Epub 2009/01/08.
  • 52
    Cole SR, Platt RW, Schisterman EF, et al. Illustrating bias due to conditioning on a collider. Int J Epidemiol 2010;39(2):417420. Epub 2009/11/21.
  • 53
    Enomoto N, Takase S, Yasuhara M, Takada A. Acetaldehyde metabolism in different aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1991;15(1):141144. Epub 1991/02/01.
  • 54
    Matsuo K, Wakai K, Hirose K, Ito H, Saito T, Tajima K. Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 His47Arg polymorphism influences drinking habit independently of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Glu487Lys polymorphism: analysis of 2,299 Japanese subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(5):10091013. Epub 2006/05/17.
  • 55
    Hao PP, Chen YG, Wang JL, Wang XL, Zhang Y. Meta-analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in East Asians. Can J Neurol Sci 2011;38(3):500506. Epub 2011/04/26.
  • 56
    Au Yeung SL, Jiang CQ, Cheng KK, et al. Evaluation of moderate alcohol use and cognitive function among men using a Mendelian randomization design in the Guangzhou biobank cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2012;175(10):10211028. Epub 2012/02/04.
  • 57
    Wang J, Wang H, Chen Y, Hao P, Zhang Y. Alcohol ingestion and colorectal neoplasia: a meta-analysis based on a Mendelian randomization approach. Colorectal Dis 2011;13(5):e71e78. Epub 2010/12/01.
  • 58
    Boccia S, Hashibe M, Galli P, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis implementing a Mendelian randomization approach. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(1):248254. Epub 2009/01/07.
  • 59
    Lewis SJ, Davey Smith G. Alcohol, ALDH2, and esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis which illustrates the potentials and limitations of a Mendelian randomization approach. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(8):19671971. Epub 2005/08/17.
  • 60
    Chen L, Davey Smith G, Harbord RM, Lewis SJ. Alcohol intake and blood pressure: a systematic review implementing a Mendelian randomization approach. Plos Med 2008;5(3):e52. Epub 2008/03/06.