Contract grant sponsor: The Wellcome Trust; Contract grant numbers: 084268/Z/07/Z.
MOTHERS' OWN RECOLLECTIONS OF BEING PARENTED AND RISK OF OFFSPRING DEPRESSION 18 YEARS LATER: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY
Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Depression and Anxiety
Focus on Prognosis and Risk Factors
Volume 31, Issue 1, pages 38–43, January 2014
How to Cite
Mahedy, L., Heron, J., Stapinski, L. A., Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., Joinson, C., Bowes, L. and Lewis, G. (2014), MOTHERS' OWN RECOLLECTIONS OF BEING PARENTED AND RISK OF OFFSPRING DEPRESSION 18 YEARS LATER: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY. Depress. Anxiety, 31: 38–43. doi: 10.1002/da.22174
- Issue published online: 2 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 1 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 9 MAY 2013
- The Wellcome Trust. Grant Number: 084268/Z/07/Z
- maternal bonding
Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18.
This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables.
A one standard deviation increase in mothers’ perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression.
This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations.