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NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENTIAL RISK FOR DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS ACROSS RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES

Authors


  • All three authors declare no conflicts of interest.

  • Contract grant sponsor: National Institute of Mental Health; contract grant number: #1R01MH098374-01; contract grant number: #P50 MH073469-05; contract grant sponsor: Advanced Center for Latino and Mental Health Systems Research; contract grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities; contract grant number: #P60 MD002261-02; contract grant sponsor: UPR-CHA Research Center of Excellence: Making a Difference for Latino Health; contract grant sponsor: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, University of Miami; contract grant number: #T32HL007426 (K.M.M.).

Abstract

Background

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders varies depending on the person's neighborhood context, their racial/ethnic group, and the specific diagnoses being examined. Less is known about specific neighborhood features that represent differential risk for depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) across racial/ethnic groups in the United States. This study examines whether neighborhood etiologic factors are associated with DAD, above and beyond individual-level characteristics, and whether these associations are moderated by race/ethnicity.

Methods

We utilized nationally representative data (N = 13,837) from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES-Geocode file). Separate weighted multilevel logistic regression models were fitted for any past-year depressive and/or anxiety disorder, any depressive disorder only, and any anxiety disorder only.

Results

After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, African Americans living in a neighborhood with greater affluence and Afro-Caribbeans residing in more residentially unstable neighborhoods were at increased risk for any past-year depressive disorder as compared to their non-Latino white counterparts. Further, Latinos residing in neighborhoods with greater levels of Latino/immigrant concentration were at increased risk of any past-year anxiety disorder. Lastly, Asians living in neighborhoods with higher levels of economic disadvantage were at decreased risk of any past-year depressive and/or anxiety disorders compared to non-Latino whites, independent of individual-level factors. Differences across subethnic groups are also evident.

Conclusions

Results suggest neighborhood characteristics operate differently on risk for DAD across racial/ethnic groups. Our findings have important implications for designing and targeting interventions to address DAD risk among racial/ethnic minorities.

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