Integrating machine learning in ad hoc routing: A wireless adaptive routing protocol
Article first published online: 13 JAN 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Communication Systems
Volume 24, Issue 7, pages 950–966, July 2011
How to Cite
Russell, B., Littman, M. L. and Trappe, W. (2011), Integrating machine learning in ad hoc routing: A wireless adaptive routing protocol. Int. J. Commun. Syst., 24: 950–966. doi: 10.1002/dac.1202
- Issue published online: 23 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 13 JAN 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 SEP 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 22 JUN 2010
- Manuscript Received: 3 AUG 2009
- adaptive algorithms;
- machine learning;
- routing protocols
The nodes in a wireless ad hoc network act as routers in a self-configuring network without infrastructure. An application running on the nodes in the ad hoc network may require that intermediate nodes act as routers, receiving and forwarding data packets to other nodes to overcome the limitations of noise, router congestion and limited transmission power. In existing routing protocols, the ‘self-configuring’ aspects of network construction have generally been limited to the construction of routes that minimize the number of intermediate nodes on a route while ignoring the effects that the resulting traffic has on the overall communication capacity of the network. This paper presents a context-aware routing metric that factors the effects of environmental noise and router congestion into a single time-based metric, and further presents a new cross-layer routing protocol, called Warp-5 (Wireless Adaptive Routing Protocol, Version 5), that uses the new metric to make better routing decisions in heterogeneous network systems. Simulation results for Warp-5 are presented and compared to the existing, well-known AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) routing protocol and the reinforcement-learning based routing protocol, Q-routing. The results show Warp-5 to be superior to shortest path routing protocols and Q-routing for preventing router congestion and packet loss due to noise. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.