To evaluate the combination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in children, we reviewed a total of 71 FNA specimens from pediatric patients with persistent lymphadenopathy. Two cases were deemed inadequate. In the remaining 69 cases, 54 (78%) were diagnosed as benign lesions, 9 (13%) as Hodgkin's lymphoma, 4 (6%) as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or leukemic infiltrate, and 2 as metastatic tumors. Of the 69 cases, 25 cases (38%) were diagnosed based on cytomorphology alone, 30 (43%) by combined cytomorphology and FCI, and 19 (28%) by surgical biopsy. In conclusion, FNA is an easy, safe, and reliable procedure in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in children. In difficult cases, FCI can be used to exclude non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;26:5–9. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.